Simulation Results

We used extensive simulations to test and validate our analysis. The simulator starts with a hypothetical 'ancestor' genome which evolves into the extant species through speciation, inversion, translocation, fusion, fission, insertion, deletion, and duplication. When an operation is applied, the breakpoint is chosen uniformly at random from the set of used or unused breakpoints on this chromosome, depending on the breakpoint reuse ratio. The length of the operation is also picked uniformly at random within the specified distance from the first breakpoint.

We tuned the weights of these operations in order to generate simulated data that makes more biological sense specifically for placental mammalian genomes. The ancestor genome was assigned around 5,000 genes. The parameters or weights of the large scale operations were tuned such that the extant species had around the same number of genes. The breakpoint reuse ratio was kept around 8%-10% and each of the extant species had 5%-10% duplicated genes. We simulated 50 datasets using the phylogenetic tree:

((((human,chimp),rhesus),(mouse,rat)),dog). On average, the ratio of breakpoint reuse is 9.98%, the ratio of duplicated genes in each extant species is 8.12% (rhesus), 7.52% (human), 7.26% (chimp), 7.12% (mouse), 7.85% (rat), and 7.23% (dog), respectively. Also, rearrangements are distributed as 82.33% inversions, 9.40% translocations, 3.86% fusions, and 4.40% fissions. In all the duplication events, 30.40% are tandem duplications and 69.60% are segmental duplications.

We ran our reconstruction program for inferring CARs on each dataset (avg. running time 14.62min) and compared the predicted adjacencies with the known (simulated) ones. Our target ancestor was primate-rodent ancestor and dog was treated as outgroup. For determining the success rate, we considered only the effective ancestral adjacencies (~59% of all ancestral adjacencies) that were broken in at least one lineage in the subtree rooted by primate-rodent ancestor, since the unbroken adjacencies will be found by essentially any procedure.

The frequency of correctly predicted adjacencies was 99.46% (SD=0.43%) for the primate-rodent ancestor. The reconstruction accuracy of human-rhesus ancestor and mouse-rat ancestor is 99.75% (SD=0.27%) and 99.72% (SD=0.25%) respectively.

We did some additional experiments to see how the performance changes in the primate-rodent ancestor if we change parameters in the simulation. We made the effective ancestral adjacency vary by using different number of rearrangement operations. Interestingly, the accuracy didn't change much. For example, when the effective ancestral adjacency is around 10%, the accuracy is 99.67%. When the effective adjacency is around 70%, the accuracy is 99.45%. We think the accuracy didn't really depend on effective adjacency because we used six species in this simulation. We also increased the breakpoint reuse ratio to around 40% when the effective adjacency ratio is 70%, then the accuracy dropped to 96.83%. We concluded from these preliminary experiments that when the number of leaf genomes is reasonable, the reconstruction performance isn't hurt much if we increase the number of operations (as reflected in the effective adjacencies). Instead, the performance will be suffered if we increase the breakpoint reuse ratio to let one ancestral adjacency be broken independently in different lineages.

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