Metabolism of Alcohol

Alcohol is absorbed through the stomach and duodenum. Absorption depends on many factors, including sex and weight of the individual, duration of drinking, nature of the drink, and presence of food in the stomach. Alcohol dehydrogenase in the gastric mucosa may contribute substantially to alcohol metabolism (gastric first-pass metabolism), but this effect is generally only evident with low doses and after eating. Studies of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in gastric biopsies of women suggest a...

Intracranial Injury

There is a high incidence of mortality and morbidity after inflicted head injury, and it is the most common cause of traumatic death in infancy (34). It has been generally accepted from research evidence that serious or fatal injury from accidental injury, other than that sustained in road traffic accidents or falls from major heights, is rare in children under 2 years and that simple skull fractures in accidental trauma have a low risk of intracranial sequelae (26). The major acute...

Vision and Eye Disorders

The two most important aspects of vision in relation to driving are visual acuity and visual fields. Visual acuity may simply be defined as the best obtainable vision with or without spectacles or contact lenses. Most countries require a binocular visual acuity greater than 6 12 for licensing purposes. In the United Kingdom, the eyesight requirements are to read a car number registration plate at 20.5 m, which corresponds to between 6 9 and 6 12 on the Snellen chart. The minimum field of vision...

Types of Injury

It is important that anyone who is involved in injury assessment understand the range of terms that can be applied to different injury, and this may depend on certain factors, such as country of origin or medical specialty. Thus, each practitioner should have a system of his or her own that ensures that the nature of each injury is described clearly, reproducibly, and unambiguously in note form, using accepted terms of classification. The most common reason why medical evidence on injuries...

Drink Drugs Driving Impairment Assessment Form

ASSOCIATION OF FORENSIC PHYSICIANS SECTION 4 RTA ASSESSMENT FORM (Version 6 1 1 04) Note This form has been designed by Dr Ian F Wall on behalf of the Education and Research Committee of the Association of Police Surgeons for use by Police Surgeons (also known as Forensic Medical Examiners or Forensic Physicians) who have been trained in the use of Standardised Impairment Tests, The form is provided to assist Police Surgeons in determining whether a person has a condition, which may be due to...

Med102 In India West Bengal

Guidance for Clinical Health Care Workers Protection Against Infection with Blood-borne Viruses Recommendations of the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS and the Advisory Group on Hepatitis. HSC 1998 063 , NHS Executive, London, UK, 1998. 2. Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC SHEA APIC IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Mob. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51 1-44, 2002. 3....

External Genitalia

For penile penetration of the vagina to occur, the penis must first pass between the labia minora and through the hymenal opening. The apposition of the penis and the posterior fourchette in the majority of sexual positions means that this area may be stretched, rubbed, or receive blunt trauma as vaginal penetration is achieved. Lacerations, abrasions, or bruises at the posterior fourchette have all been described after consensual sexual activity, although in all these cases, the examinations...

Injuries From Handcuffs

Injuries from handcuffs either reflect relative movement between the cuff and wrist or are the result of direct pressure from the cuff to the tissues of the wrist. It is important to remember that injuries may be unilateral, especially where there has been resistance to their application. The most common injuries found are erythema, abrasions, and bruising, particularly to the radial and ulna borders of the wrist 2 . The erythema is often linear and orientated circumferentially around the wrist...

Types of Injury 31 Bruises

The terms contusion and ecchymosis have been used to differentiate between different types of injury that can more simplistically be called bruising. These terms have been used variously to describe different injury sizes but do not enhance understanding of either causation or mechanism of injury and should no longer be used. A hematoma is best used to refer to a collection of blood forming a fluctuant mass under the skin and may be associated with substantial trauma. The difference between...