American Football 101
Are you looking for a way to increase the capabilities of your football team? Is your football team leaving something to be desired? Are you looking to skyrocket your team's effectiveness with the most effective drills and plays?
A 28-year-old man of Italian origin, suffering from a very advanced lymphoma, used to ask the treating physician every morning during rounds, Is there a possibility to operate and would then change the topic and inform the physician about the latest news from the Italian football league. The physician always respectfully denied a surgical option for that moment and then stayed a while to listen to the football news. Being with the patient where he is at this moment in time implied that the daily question of this patient was respectfully answered without irritation, and understood in the context of the patient's denial. This question, which had become a ritual, was this patient's way to express that he knew he is ill, but that he had not given up hope the football news can be interpreted as the patient expressing that he is not only ill, but that healthy parts still exist and that he continues to be interested in his lifelong hobby, which he shared with the physician.
Testosterone released by the testes at puberty results in the increased size of muscle fibers, long cells that contract when stimulated by nerve impulses. Testosterone also increases the total amount of muscle on the body, or muscle mass, because it promotes retention of the dietary nitrogen used to synthesize muscle proteins. Males have more testosterone than females, although the ovaries and adrenal glands do release small quantities of this hormone, and the difference in muscle mass accounts for an overall difference in strength between males and females. In sports that require brute strength, such as football, men have an advantage, but in sports like baseball, where success depends more on agility and hand-eye coordination, sex differences are reduced.
If a boy is struggling with hitting a baseball or throwing a football with a tight spiral, he knows there is the expectation that he is able to do this (Figure 12.14). His status in the neighborhood and on the school playground may even be determined by his athletic abilities. Conversely, girls who are struggling with developing their athletic skills are aware that there is no expectation that they will become athletes. Unless they are highly motivated, it is often easier for them to quit than to develop a skill.
The normal joint is well adapted to withstand physiologic loads, but abnormal loading can increase the risk of OA. For example, trauma, heavy manual labor, and obesity all carry an increased risk of OA. Workers in certain occupations, such as coal miners, dockyard workers, and farmers have an increased risk of hip and knee OA 61 . Similarly, in obese men and women, with a body mass index of 30 to 35, the risk of developing arthritic knees increases approximately fourfold 61 . Physiologically normal loads applied to a pathologically impaired joint will also lead to OA, as will subluxation, malalignment of the joint, and crystal deposition diseases. Former soccer or football players have a high prevalence of knee OA this has been attributed to the high incidence of meniscectomy and cruciate ligament injuries 61 . Such injuries can lead to instability or sublaxation of the joint, along with abnormal impact and load distribution. Sublaxation also results if the collagen fibrils in tendons...
Detachment of the retina signifies an inward separation of the sensory part of the retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). There is an accumulation of fluid in the space between the neural retina and the RPE known as subreti-nal fluid (Figure 13.1). The retina bulges inwards like the collapsed bladder of a football. Once detached, the retina can no longer function and, in humans, it tends to remain detached, unless treatment is available.