101 Toxic Food Ingredients
As noted above, the FFDCA tasks FDA with determining whether a food contact notification has demonstrated the safety of the proposed use. The food additive Delaney clause of the FFDCA states that 'no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal '. Therefore, demonstration of carcinogenicity in any animal species is deemed sufficient to prohibit approval as a food additive.
As discussed above, the Delaney clause applies to substances proposed for use as food additives, but does not apply to individual constituents of a food additive. Examples of constituents would include residual monomers or catalysts. The constituents policy, subjected to judicial review in Scott v. FDA, 728 F. 2d 322 (6th cir. 1984), states that FDA may consider the potential risks of constituent exposure under the general safety standards set forth in FFDCA. The notification process places the responsibility upon the notifier for addressing the carcinogenic risk of constituent exposure from a proposed use of a food additive. FDA recommends that notifiers include in their food contact notification a safety narrative that addresses the safety of each carcinogenic constituent at any exposure (in addition to the recommendations listed in Table 7.1). This narrative should include an estimate of the potential human cancer risk from the constituent due to the proposed use of the food...
Another important aspect of the safety assessment is the evaluation of constituents of food additives, which include impurities and byproducts, as well as the low molecular weight oligomeric fraction of polymeric substances. For example, the safety evaluation for every FCN encompasses all components that would be expected to migrate to food, including the FCS, the food additive, and constituents of the food additive. This assessment is complex and the lack of proper evaluation and supporting documentation on all substances is the most common deficiency.
Brandsch J., Mercea P., Ruter M., Tosa V., Piringer O. (2002), Migration modelling as a tool for quality assurance of food packaging, Food Additives and Contaminants, 19, pp 29-41. O'Brien A., Cooper I., (2002), Practical experience in the use of additive models to predict migration of additives from food contact polymers, Food Additives and Contaminants, 19, pp 56-62. Reynier A., Dole P., Feigenbaum A., (2002), Integrated approach of migration prediction using numerical modelling associated to determination of key parameters, Food Additives and Contaminants, 19, pp 42-55. US Food and Drug Administration. Food additives Threshold of regulation for substances used in food contact articles final rule. Federal Register 60, 36582-36596, Monday July 17, 1995.
Within the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, the Office of Food Additive Safety administers premarket approval processes for new direct food additives and food additives that are components of food contact materials. Most food contact materials are regulated via the food contact notification process and authorization of new food contact materials is administered by the Division of Food Contact Notifications (see Chapter 2 for further information). The notifier has the primary responsibility to demonstrate the safety of the proposed use of the food contact material. Review scientists within FDA perform a fair evaluation of the data in a food contact notification, as well as other relevant information, to determine if the knowledge base supports the finding with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from the intended use of the food additive. FDA maintains a number of public online listings that include useful information To understand FDA's current approach to...
Hence, greater amounts of toxicity data are generally needed to demonstrate the safety of bioactive compounds such as drugs, herbicides, and other biocides, and to support the safety of compounds with relatively high consumer exposure such as food ingredients. Less data are ordinarily necessary to demonstrate safety for constituents of food contact materials. As a general principle, starting reactants and reaction byproducts of food contact materials may be expected to be more bioactive and less stable, and therefore more toxic, than the end product. Fortunately, these reactive species tend to be present at relatively low residual levels in end product food contact materials.
Pollution and other environmental hazards. Cysteine and glutathione help protect against toxins and pollutants, including drugs, bacterial toxins, peroxidized fats, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.), air pollutants, automobile exhaust fumes, food additives, and pesticides.7 Cysteine helps protect the lungs of smokers from the toxic effects of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two of the many toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke. Cysteine can be important in cancer chemotherapy, reducing toxicity from agents such as cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin.
Recombinant DNA technology has found many interesting applications within the area of plant breeding. Food crops have been developed with altered characteristics like improved pest and disease resistance and prolonged shelf-life. Although the registration of new varieties of existing crop plants has not resulted in adverse effects in humans, the conventional assessments by plant breeders were not considered to be sufficient to ensure food safety of the genetically modified (GM) crop plants. Therefore, the European Community has established a legal framework for the introduction of novel foods with the Regulation on Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients (EC 258 97), which came into force in May 1997. The accompanying guidelines for the safety assessment of GM foods are centred around the so-called 'Concept of Substantial Equivalency'. According to this principle, the evaluation should be based on a comparison with conventionally bred products, assuming that these traditional foods...
In practice, feeding studies with whole foods are difficult to carry out and one may have to deal with a number of experimental shortcomings, including limited dose ranges in order to prevent unbalanced diets, which may make the results difficult to interpret and of limited value. Besides the feeding experiments, in vitro studies with organs and tissues from animals and various types of cell lines have already been successfully used for screening the toxic potential of food additives. It may be that this approach will lead to a redesign, refinement or even replacement of the rodent feeding trials. As the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is clearly a primary site for interaction with food components, intestinal cell lines grown on microporous membrane filters provide suitable systems for toxicity testing. Upon exposure, the cells can be tested for transmucosal transport parameters such as the transport of water-insoluble probes (e.g. 14C-polyethylene glycol) and for cytological...
Article 3 of the framework regulation requires that food contact materials shall not transfer their constituents to foods in quantities which could 'endanger human health, or bring about an unacceptable change in the composition of the food, or bring about a deterioration in the organoleptic characteristics'. In particular, releasing materials cannot meet these requirements as they are designed to change the composition or the organoleptic properties of the food. Absorbing materials may also change the composition or organoleptic properties of the food. Therefore a special Article 4 has been inserted which allows changes in the composition or organoleptic characteristics of the food, provided the changes comply with the provisions of Directive 89 107 EEC10 on food additives and its related implementing measures. In the absence of Community measures national provisions shall be applicable. Inserting this provision took away the hurdle, in the old framework Directive 89 109 EEC2, for...
L-Aspartic acid is used in medicines and in food additives as artificial sweetener, which can be produced by reacting fumaric acid with ammonia in the presence of aspartase. Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd. first reported the industrial production of l-aspartic acid using E. Coli B immobilized with polyacrylamide gel. The acid is produced (60 t month) in a multistage packed column reactor, with cooling water tubes to remove the exothermic heat produced during the reaction (Fig. 14.1). The product is crystallized and filtered.
Fermentation involves the breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones. It is a chemical change that produces energy, usually in the absence of oxygen. Bacteria and other microorganisms (an organism that is too small to see without a microscope) break apart sugar molecules for energy. In the process, they release a waste product, such as alcohol. Fermentation is often used to describe the conversion of sugar to alcohol by yeast. This process is used to make beer and wine. Manufacturers also use fermentation to make food additives, chemical compounds, and antibiotics.
The main uses for industrial fermentation today are in the chemical, food processing, and pharmaceutical (related to medical drugs) industries. Products made by industrial fermentation include drugs, food additives, and laundry detergent. One example of a product made by industrial fermentation is the drug insulin, which helps the body use sugar. People who have diabetes either lack insulin or do not produce enough insulin. Scientists have genetically engineered bacteria with human genes so that they can produce insulin. The insulin that is produced by this method is then given as a medication to people who have diabetes, a disease in which the body has trouble processing blood sugar.
M., o'brian, a., rebre, s., rijk, r. and piringer, o., 2005, Evaluation of migration models that might be used in support of regulations for food-contact plastics. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(1), 73-90. bieber, w. d., figge, k. and KOCH, J., 1985, Interaction between plastics packaging materials and foodstuffs with different fat content and fat release properties. Food Additives and Contaminants, 2, 113-124. brandsch, J., mercea, p. and piringer o., 2000, Possibilities and limitations of migration modelling, in Piringer, O.-G. and Baner, A. L., Plastic Packaging Materials for Food, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, New York. brandsch, J., mercea, p., ruter m., tosa V. and piringer o., 2002, Migration modelling as a tool for quality assurance of food packaging. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19 (Suppl.) 29-41. castle l., mercer, a. J. and gilbert, J., 1991, Migration from plasticized films into foods. 5. Identification of individual species in a polymeric plasticizer and their migration...
FDA webpage on indirect food additives at http vm.cfsan.fda.gov lrd foodadd.html Food Packaging Ensuring the safety, quality and traceability of foods. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium organised by ILSI Europe. J. Gilbert and A. Theobald (editors). Food Additives & Contaminants, 2005, volume 22, issue 10.
The process of assessment and control has continued to the present day, such that, by and large, all food ingredients are controlled by legislation. When and where appropriate these are removed from the permitted list or limited to an acceptable daily intake (ADI). Across the globe, countries employ their own legislative controls for food ingredients, but there are two main regions that exert great influence upon world opinion on this issue the European system controlled by the European Parliament with designated E-numbers for permitted food additives, and the system used in the United States where at the federal level the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) lays down the framework for food safety.
(4) Phosphorus-containing additives in unknown amounts are frequently used for food preservation. It has been estimated that phosphorous intake from additives may amount to 1,000 mg day 23 . Phosphorus additives are absorbed almost 100 into the circulation. Manufacturers are not required to list the phosphorous content on food labels, thus making it difficult for patients to identify those high-phosphorus foods.
Iron is the major constituent of steel which is used either as tinplate or electro chromium coated steel (ECCS). However, the steel surface is always protected by a layer of tin and or a protective organic coating. Iron is not controlled by specific regulatory limits although the joint FAO WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA) has established a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) at 0.8 milligrams per kilogram bodyweight (mgkg-1 bw). Given the strong taint that iron imparts to foodstuffs, this limit is unlikely to be exceeded through the use of steel in foodstuff packaging. Iron migration from metal foodstuff packaging is monitored by industry during qualification testing because of the risk of tainting and because iron dissolution could indicate corrosion of the substrate leading to potential loss of can integrity. Standards exist for food packaging grades of tinplate (EN 10333), and ECCS (EN 10335).
Today, mainly oxygen and moisture absorbers and time temperature indicators are used on food packaging. A survey of consumers' attitudes to active packaging revealed that consumers appreciate the use of active packaging materials that improve or maintain the quality of the food.43 Consumers expressed a wish for invisible active packaging. The presence of a sachet or box with 'chemicals' was considered a disadvantage as the sachet easily could be confused with food ingredients such as a salt or dressing.
MEKC is useful for a wide range of small molecules such as drugs, pesticides, and food additives that are not charged and are sufficiently hydropho-bic to associate with the micelle. While SDS is probably the most widely used detergent for this purpose, cationic detergents such as TTAB can also be employed. Nonionic detergents by themselves do not provide mobility to uncharged analytes, but in combination with charged detergents they will modify the separation. Some detergents are useful in specific applications. For example, sodium cholate is useful in the separation and analysis of a variety of steroids. The micelles formed in this case are not the classical spherical shape but are probably sodium cholate molecules arranged on each other like a stack of coins. Different uncharged steroids differ in their tendencies to participate in these stacks.
Following extensive characterization of the recombinant protein, its safety can be demonstrated using a case-by-case strategy within a tiered approach in which the function and mode of action should be taken into account if known 2 . Where the mechanism of action is not known, a search for sequence and structural homology to known toxic proteins might provide useful parameters to be included in the safety testing procedure. Several protocols have been described for the safety assessment of food additives by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A number of aspects in these protocols can also be implemented in the safety evaluation of GM food. The following issues may be addressed in the safety testing of novel food proteins
The World Health Organization has estimated that at least 100000 different chemicals are on the market, most of them with unknown immunotoxic potential. The complex nature of the immune system as sketched above allows for two very different mechanisms how low-molecular-weight chemicals such as drugs, food additives, metal salts, naturally occurring chemicals, or any of the many chemicals used in industry, agriculture, or household products can become immunotoxic (Figure 2). Chemicals or their metabolites can exert toxic effects on the immune system as the target organ. Any cell type can be affected, granulocytes, stem cells, natural killer cells, lymphocytes, etc. From the point of view of an immunologist, this type of immunotoxicity is nonspecific because it is not mediated by the specific antigen receptors on B or T lymphocytes. This type of immunotoxic effect will not lead to memory to the chemical in an immunological sense. Immunotoxic effects of this type usually cause...
McCrory et al. found that a wide variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, and high-carbohydrate entrees coupled with a smaller variety of vegetables promoted long-term increase in energy intake and body fat 17 . Providing nutritional supplements consisting of a wide variety of sweets and carbohydrates may be helpful as the second step for the treatment of weight loss. In addition, loss of taste and smell are common in the elderly, and medications and medical conditions play a major role in taste losses and distortions 18 . Thus, the use of flavour-enhanced food has a correspondingly positive effect on food intake.
Pasteurised process cheese products (PCPs) are cheese-based foods produced by comminuting, blending and melting one or more natural cheeses and optional ingredients into a smooth homogeneous blend with the aid of heat, mechanical shear and (usually) emulsifying salts (ES). Optional ingredients, which are determined by the product type, include water, dairy ingredients, emulsifying salts, flavours, colours, preservatives and condiments. The development of PCPs in the period from 1910 to the 1920s was inspired by the possibility of increased cheese trade through the manufacture of products that were physicochemically and microbiologically more stable and transportable than the natural cheeses from which they were made.
Two acts are pertinent to any discussion regarding the regulation of food contact materials in the US. These are the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. A brief discussion of the authority granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under each follows. The US Congress granted authority to the FDA to regulate food additives in the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the FFDCA. A food additive is As detailed in the FFDCA, a food additive shall be deemed unsafe unless it conforms to an exemption (for investigational use), a regulation listing or, as explained below, an effective food contact notification (FCN) (FFDCA, Section 409(a)). Moreover, in the US food additives require pre-market evaluation before introduction into interstate commerce. As originally established in Section 409(a)(3)(A), such an evaluation of a food additive can lead to an approval through a food additive...
In summary, the last decade has witnessed a change in the U.S. with regard to regulatory processes for components of food contact articles, though the safety standard has remained unchanged since the Food Additives Amendment of 1958. FDA's approach to the safety assessment of these substances is exposure driven, in that it is specific to the intended use and the resultant dietary exposure, which determines the amount of toxicological data consistent with the tiered requirements. Structure activity relationship analysis or the pairing of structure activity relationship analysis with short-term genetic toxicology data can be used to determine the carcinogenic potential of a substance in lieu of available data. Potentially carcinogenic constituents with bioassay or analog data are evaluated using quantitative risk assessment principles and, when data are available and exposure warrants review,
Glucosinolates are spicy flavoring agents that give mustard, horseradish, cabbage, and kohlrabi their characteristic tastes. The aromatic compounds are only released when the vegetables are chopped up. Their health-promoting effects, especially on the urinary tract, were already known in the Ancient World. Excessive consumption of glucosinolates may stimulate goiter formation.
The FDA is the governmental organization charged with ensuring the safety of all domestic and imported foods and food ingredients (except for meat and poultry, which are regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture). The manufacturer of any new food that is not Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) must obtain FDA approval before marketing its product. Adding substances to foods also requires FDA approval, unless the additive is GRAS.
A careful elimination diet (see pp.205) can identify food sensitivities that trigger eczema.17 The most common offending foods are milk, eggs, fish, cheese, nuts, and food additives. Cold-pressed nut and seed oils are high in beneficial EFAs important for skin health and should be consumed regularly. Disturbances in fatty acid metabolism in the skin can produce or aggravate eczema impaired production of omega-3 fatty acids and GLA can increase inflammation in the skin (see pp.89).18
Cell division is normally carefully controlled, but in cancer a cell breaks free from normal regulation and begins dividing out of control. Many cancers begin when the DNA of the cell is damaged by a carcinogen. About one in three people will develop cancer during their lifetime. A major factor contributing to the high rates of cancer in the industrialized countries is the combination of increased exposure to carcinogens - enviromental chemicals, air pollution, food additives, cigarette smoke, radiation - together with a highly processed diet high in fat and low in protective micronutrients. Dietary factors, as initiators or promoters of cancer, are estimated to play a role in about 50 of all cases.1 With healthy dietary choices and prudent micronutrient supplementation, risk of cancer can be reduced significantly (see Fig. 5.20).2
People want to know what's in their food and how it is produced. Some food labels address ethical concerns. For example, consumers want labeling of environmentally friendly and socially responsible products, such as tuna that have been caught without killing dolphins in fishing nets. Other labels are important for health reasons. But whatever the issue, labeling with relevant information at least allows consumers to choose whether to buy a product or not.
Cookbooks generally distinguish between seasonings (spices used in food preparation) and condiments (spices added after food is served), but not between herbs and spices (Sherman and Billing, 1999). Herbs are defined botanically (as plants that do not develop woody, persistent tissue), usually are called for in their fresh state, whereas spices generally are dried. 93 of recipes call for at least one spice. On average, recipes called for nearly four, but some lacked spices,
Food sensitivity can develop at any age but is particularly common in infants and young children. About 7-10 of children exhibit food allergies during their growing years.1 Colic in babies may be caused by sensitivity to a food -a common allergen is the protein in cow's milk. Adults can also develop sensitivity reactions, particularly when the immune system is knocked off-balance by stress, illness, food additives, and poor nutrition.
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