Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Belly Secret

Joe Bovino is not only the creator of this book of strategies but also the author of other four amazon number one bestsellers. Having done extensive research and consulted professionals, he has formulated a strategy on how to get rid of that extra fat and lose weight. That is after almost a decade and a half year. He has also experienced other products prior to researching the natural ways of having a good strategy for weight loss. He can, therefore, be trusted. It entails a fun and simple strategy of having weight loss that melts away the extra pound without exercise or dieting. At times, it is quite hard to stay motivated to work out on a daily basis, especially when you are busy with work and getting older, it is hard to find the time and maintain your workouts! With this book of strategies, you learn how to continue with your usual work and enjoy life with your friends and family while at the same time lose that extra weight and belly, without any shed of sweat. It will help you; Rejuvenating and refreshing your skin, Supercharge your energy levels and become activated most of the time, You will still continue eating your preferred food and drinks without restrictions., Melt away extra pounds and keep them off for a long time. More here...

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Vegetables and Fruits

How nutritious are canned and frozen vegetables and fruits Most frozen produce is processed without cooking, so most of the micronutrient content is conserved. But canned vegetables and fruits undergo a heating process that destroys much of the vitamin C and B vitamins.8 Also, minerals leach out of canned food into the water, and unless the liquid in the can is used in food preparation, the minerals will be lost. Large amounts of sodium are added during the processing and canning of vegetables. Canned fruit is often conserved in heavily sugared water. A fresh peach has about 70 calories a canned peach, with the added sugar, contains about 180 calories. When available, fruit that is conserved in its own juice is preferable.

General Elucidation of Carbohydrate Structure

Numerous natural products are glycosides, constituted of a sugar component (the glycon, frequently D-glucose, but many other sugars may be encountered) coupled through the anomeric position to an alcohol or phenol (the aglycon), a component often of considerable complexity. Examples include amygdalin (a cyanogenic glycoside), the anthocyanin plant pigments, the digitalis glycosides, and numerous antibiotics. Many of these have wide applications in medicine. This reaction affords the glycoside as the anomeric form having the aglycon and the substituent at the C-2 position in trans disposition the trans rule (38) . However, effective control of the anomeric specificity and the realization of high yields with a wide range of acceptor alcohols have presented major obstacles to synthetic chemists, later resolved by the development of numerous methodologies involving a variety of leaving groups at the anomeric position, different protecting groups on the sugar, and various catalysts and...

Oligosaccharide Structure

Sucrose (p-D-fructofuranosyl a-D-glucopyranoside), a nonreducing dextrorotatory disaccharide, is the most abundant pure (99.95 ) organic compound (Scheme 12), Sucrose Sucrose Scheme 12 Sucrose -d-fructofuranosyl a-d-glucopyranoside. The low cost of sucrose makes it an attractive synthetic precursor for a wide range of applications (56), and a chlorinated derivative sucralose) is widely used as a noncaloric sweetener (Splenda ). Various other oligosaccharides occur naturally in the free form (57), but far more have been isolated as fragmentation products from larger biomolecules their chemical or enzymatic synthesis is a very active current area of research, as detailed in Chapters 3 and 4.

Polysaccharide Structure

The techniques of methylation linkage-analysis, periodate oxidation and the Smith degradation, and fragmentation analysis have been applied (32) to the structural elucidation of a wide range of polysaccharides isolated from plants, many finding practical applications (68) as gelling agents (agar, carrageenan, and other algal polysaccharides). Certain microorganisms convert simple sugars into poly-saccharides, and many such microbial polysaccharides have useful properties (dextran, xanthan).

The Ontogeny of Pain Neurobiology

Models, with the staged development of the rat pup as the accepted model. A rat pup at P7 (day 7 of life) is comparable to a full-term infant and at P21 is comparable to a human adult (23,24). Conflicting research on the induction of endogenous opioid system activity from nutritive and nonnutritive suckling exists. Early studies suggested that orogustatory response to sucrose water caused release of endogenous opioids. Recent studies found no change in measured opioid ligand concentrations after suckling. Furthermore, the ontogeny of opioid receptors and their ligands is not uniform. and k receptors appear much earlier than 5 receptors, and the endogenous opioid ligands (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins) appear before receptors are present (25). In addition, in the rat pup descending inhibitory pathways are present at birth but are not functional before day 10 of life (23). Thus, extrapolating from the animal model, the human preterm or even full-term neonate may have a...

Energy Distribution Among Nutrients

Sucrose 400 However, in addition to the importance of controlling the total amount of dietary energy, food choices should be directed towards a balanced distribution of energy among nutrient sources. Epidemiological and experimental studies have led to the establishment of correct energy distribution among carbohydrates, fats, and protein, in order to prevent the onset of chronic diseases and to assure the maintenance of a good nutritional and health status. In this view, in the USA, more than 20 years ago, a Senate Select Committee stated that the energy distribution compatible with good health and that should be reached by the American population (dietary goals) should consist of 58 of energy from carbohydrates, 30 from fats, and 12 from proteins. Among carbohydrates, 15 of calories should derive from sugars and 40-50 from complex carbohydrates, while, among fats, 10 of calories should come from saturated fats and 20 from unsaturated fats 13 . Therefore, the actual recommendation is...

Behavior Circuits And Biochemical Machinery

The complex behavior of honeybees, including orientation, foraging, and social communication, has attracted interest since the turn of the century (116). Learning odor, color, and shape of flowers is an essential component of the bee's behavior and reveals many characteristics of associative learning described in mammals (6,7). In particular, the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) of harnessed bees provides the opportunity to characterize the behavioral, cellular and molecular levels of learning and memory. In this paradigm, the PER elicited by the stimulation of an antenna by sucrose solution is conditioned by pairing an odor stimulus (CS, conditioned stimulus) with a sucrose reward (US, unconditioned stimulus). In the retrieval test, the PER is elicited in a high percentage of animals by application of the odor alone (117,118). Interestingly, depending on the number of conditioning trials, different memories are induced. Whereas a single conditioning...

Density gradient centrifugation

It is now widely recognized, particularly for some of the larger organelles (nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes), which can be pelleted at relatively low g-forces (1000-15 000g), that the use of viscous, hyperosmotic sucrose gradients at g-forces of more than 100000g in long sedimentation path length swinging-bucket rotors, is both inconvenient and potentially deleterious to the organelles. Consequently, there is a pronounced trend to the use of low-viscosity gradient media such as Nycodenz or iodixanol 17 , whose gradients have a much lower osmolality than those of sucrose (or A disadvantage of Percoll gradients is that it is normally a requirement to remove the colloidal silica particles prior to any analysis the particles are light scattering and can interfere with any spectrophotometric measurements they also cause irregular banding of proteins in SDS-PAGE. Moreover, removal of the silica colloid by sedimentation can also lead to the loss of organelles into the gel...

Nucleiand nuclear components see Protocols 4146 Nuclei

Detergent-free methods for the purification of nuclei have routinely involved the pelleting of the organelles from a crude nuclear pellet suspension, through a dense (approx 2 M) sucrose barrier. The nuclei lose water to the grossly hyperosmotic medium and attain a density > 1.32 g ml. Pelleting the nuclei is thus the only option since this is the limiting density of sucrose solutions. The high viscosity of the solutions also requires a g-force, normally of 100 000g or higher, for at least 1 h. It is possible that DNA-protein interactions become destabilized by the loss of water and the high hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of the tube. On the other hand, in a discontinuous gradient of iodixanol (centrifuged at 10000g for 20 min), which is close to being isoosmotic, the nuclei exhibit a much lower density (approx 1.23 g ml) and can therefore band at an interface. The method, developed for mammalian liver 20-23 has been used for other tissues such as brain 24-26 , a wide variety of...

Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum ER

The microsome fraction (see 'Differential centrifugation' above) will contain, in addition to the membrane vesicles derived from the smooth and rough ER, contaminating organelles that failed to sediment at 15 000g, together with core structures from peroxisomes, which have lysed during the previous manipulations. The smooth vesicle fraction will also contain vesicles derived from other sources such as the Golgi and TGN. Rough ER and smooth ER can be effectively separated in a continuous sucrose gradient 48 as described in Protocol 4.18. To resolve the rough ER from the peroxisomal cores (and other contaminating organelles), the density of the RER vesicles is reduced by stripping off the ribosomes with pyrophosphate and they are purified on a second continuous sucrose density gradient 48 . As both the SER and RER band broadly, the method may offer some scope for subfractionation of both membranes. Protocol 4.19 offers an alternative method for separating these membranes in a...

Preparing Sample Plates

Fly food with luciferin 1 Bacto agar (w v), 5 sucrose (w v), 15 mM luciferin (D-luciferin firefly potassium salt). Luciferin is light-sensitive and stable at -20 C for at least 6 mo (as powder). Before usage, prepare a 100 mM luciferin stock solution in water. Stock solution is stable at -80 C for at least 6 mo. 1. Mix agar and sucrose in water and microwave until solution becomes clear. Let the solution cool down to approx 50 C (until you can touch it with your bare hands) and add the luciferin stock solution.

Methods for Nutrigenomics and Longevity Studies in Drosophila

Effects of Diets High in Sucrose, Palmitic Acid, Soy, or Beef Nutrigenomics is the study of gene-nutrient interactions and how they affect the health and metabolism of an organism. Combining nutrigenomics with longevity studies is a natural extension and promises to help identify mechanisms whereby nutrients affect the aging process, life span, and, with the incorporation of age-dependent functional measures, health span. The topics we discuss in this chapter are genetic techniques, dietary manipulations, metabolic studies, and microarray analysis methods to investigate how nutrition affects gene expression, life span, triglyceride levels, total protein levels, and live weight in Drosophila. To better illustrate nutrigenomic techniques, we analyzed Drosophila larvae or adults fed control diets (high sucrose) and compared these with larvae or adults fed diets high in the saturated fat palmitic acid, soy, or 95 lean ground beef. The main results of these studies are, surprisingly, that...

Regeneration Systems of UDPGal UDPGlc and UDPGlcA

UDP-Glc, the central sugar nucleotide in cells, can be prepared from UTP and Glc-1-P in the presence of glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalU, EC (66,67) or from sucrose and UDP with sucrose synthase (SusA, EC (Scheme 3) (59,68-70). UDP-Gal can be prepared from UDP-Glc by C4 epimeriza-tion using GalE (71), from galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P) and UTP, or from UDP-Glc and Gal-1-P using GalPUT (54,72,73). Besides the pioneering work of Whitesides, Wong, and their collaborators, Wang et al. have also applied five recombinant enzymes to regenerate UDP-Gal (Scheme 4) (74,75). Finally, UDP-GlcA can be readily prepared by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of the C6 hydroxyl group of UDP-Glc catalyzed by UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGD, EC (76) (Scheme 5).

Hitand Run Allele Replacement

A two-step selection protocol known as hit-and-run is used to introduce defined mutations (deletions, insertions, or point mutations) into specific genes on the chromosome of S. elongatus without leaving residual genetic markers (4). To accomplish this outcome, the mutant allele is cloned into a vector that carries both positive and negative selectable markers. The positive marker selects for the incorporation of the recombinant plasmid into S. elongatus through a single recombination event this is a cassette that confers resistance to Km, Cm, or Sm, depending on the version of the vector chosen for cloning. The negative marker, which selects a second recombination event that excises the plasmid from the chromosome, is the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis. The sacB gene encodes the enzyme levan sucrase, which, in the presence of sucrose, generates compounds that are toxic for many Gram-negative bacteria (see Note 13). As shown in Fig. 2, after the introduction of the plasmid into...

Models for Studying Permeability and Transport Across the Blood Brain Barrier

Hydrophilic tracer molecule with negligible cell uptake or binding. Suitable permeability markers of a size similar to small drug molecules (typically 100-400 Da mol.wt.) are sucrose and mannitol (used as radiolabeled probes) or fluorescent indicators such as fluorescein and Lucifer yellow.76 As electrical resistance is the reciprocal of conductance, related to the permeability of small ions, TEER is inversely proportional to the permeability or conductance of Na+ and Cl_ through the tight junctions, these being the major charge carriers in extracellular fluids.92 A plot of TEER versus small solute permeability through an epithelial or endothelial monolayer will give an asymptotic curve reflecting this relationship.95 Net solute flux increases as the sum of fluxes across individual junctional clefts, while TEER is most affected by areas with the lowest resistance, which shunt current flow. Hence a small flaw in a monolayer can cause a large drop in TEER with little drop in sucrose or...

Separation Based Analysis of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate

While initial methods of analysis relied on chemical processes for specifically degrading these sugars, the isolation and characterization of the heparin lyase enzymes (5,6) expanded the analytical tool kit with which these molecules can be studied. These enzymes, based on their substrate specificity, enable breakdown of HP and HS into smaller units that can be analyzed by known separation techniques like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Powerful separation technology is a key element for the analysis of these sugars as they are complex mixtures with many structurally variable components. The ability to detect these components effectively after separation is also another important issue that affects the ability to analyze them. Different separation approaches based upon HPLC, gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis have been developed for the analysis of HP and HS. Various different modes of detection including ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence have...

Buffers and Preparation of Foods

Add 166.7 g sucrose to beaker a, 66.7 g palmitic acid to beaker b, 366 g Mori-Nu Silken Tofu (extra firm) to beaker c, and 114 g extra lean (95 ) ground beef (pre-boiled, dried, and granulated) to beaker d. 8. Because the foods resemble one another and standard sucrose fly food, the vials, bottles, and dishes were carefully labeled with an easily remembered marker stripe system to distinguish each type.

Diagnosis And Assays For Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection

An alternative, less-subjective serology test for HHV-8 is the ELISA. A test using sucrose-purified virion has been developed (71). This assay has a sensitivity of 9095 in detecting antibodies in patients with KS, but its ability to detect antibodies in the general population and in epidemic areas like Africa has not been studied extensively. Additional ELISA assays have been developed using recombinant viral antigens, such as capsid protein ORF65.2 and lytic protein K8.1 (72). These assays are comparable to the latent IFA assays in detecting antibodies in KS patients but tend to be more variable in the general blood donor population (72,73). Western blot analyses using either infected whole-cell lysates or recombinant viral proteins have also been used (44). The latency-associated nuclear antigen is the primary antigen detected using the whole-cell lysate (11). These assays in general are much more difficult to perform. They are only about 80-90 sensitive in detecting antibodies in...

Longevity Studies With Mated Males and Females

Seven dietary conditions used in this chapter. In the top four conditions, the larvae were raised in control (high sucrose) food. The adults were placed in control, palmitic acid, beef, or soy food for the duration of their lives for the longevity experiments. For the microarray, live weight (LW), triglyceride (TG), and protein level measurements, flies were sacrificed at 10 d (arrow). In conditions five to seven, the eggs were laid in the indicated foods, and the larvae were raised in the same foods (palmitic acid PA , beef, or soy food). Notice that the time from egg laying to eclosion time is longer than in the control food (see Fig. 2). Fig. 1. Seven dietary conditions used in this chapter. In the top four conditions, the larvae were raised in control (high sucrose) food. The adults were placed in control, palmitic acid, beef, or soy food for the duration of their lives for the longevity experiments. For the microarray, live weight (LW), triglyceride (TG), and protein...

Fractionation of Subcellular Membranes in Studies on Membrane Trafficking and Cell Signalling

Protocol 5.1 Separation of basolateral and bile canalicular plasma membrane domains from mammalian liver in sucrose gradients 160 Caco-2 cells in a sucrose gradient 163 Protocol 5.7 Analysis of Golgi and ER subfractions from cultured cells using discontinuous sucrose-D2O density gradients 172

Plasma membrane domains

Bile canalicular and basolateral domains of rat liver plasma membrane are prepared from the plasma membrane sheets, isolated in Protocol 4.26, after vesiculation, which is usually produced either by sonication 2,3 or liquid shear 4-6 . The two domains are then separated in a continuous or discontinuous sucrose gradient (Protocol 5.1). Sometimes Nycodenz gradients are used to provide additional purification 7,8 . The sinusoidal domain is rather less easy to purify by density gradients and it is more usually obtained by density perturbation with protein A-sepharose beads (Protocol 5.2). The beads are bound to an antibody to the polymeric IgA receptor, often called the secretory component (SC), which is a specific marker for the sinusoidal plasma membrane domain 9 . Once bound to the beads, the sinusoidal membrane vesicles can be harvested in a microcentrifuge. The methodology has been widely reviewed 10,11 . Protocols 5.3 and 5.4 provide methods for the fractionation of apical and...

Analysis of membrane compartments in the endoplasmic reticulumGolgiplasma membrane pathway

Sucrose-D2 O gradients Before iodinated density gradient media became widely used for analysis of membrane trafficking, one particular strategy to reduce the concentration of sucrose solutions necessary to band subcompartments of the ER and Golgi membrane systems was to dissolve the sucrose in D2O (Protocol 5.7). This allowed gradients of lower osmolality and viscosity to be used 19 . The method was used primarily to study the transfer of proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the ds-Golgi. The gradient showed that this intercompartmental transport involved a low-density vesicle quite distinct from its source and destination membranes. Part of the resolution of such gradients is achieved by collection of the gradients in small fraction volumes (12 ml gradients in 32 fractions). The gradients are also capable of a high degree of resolution of ER-Golgi-trans Golgi network (TGN) events 19,20 and subfractionation of the Golgi membranes in the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharide...

Separation of membrane vesicles from cytosolic proteins

The strategy for separating membranes and cytosol, which involves flotation of the membranes through an iodixanol barrier from a dense sample, has been developed for both eukaryotes and bacteria (Protocol 5.13). This strategy allows maximum resolution of the two components, since the proteins, which are much denser than the membranes, tend to sediment rather than float. It removes any ambiguity in the results from top-loaded sucrose gradients, in which the membranes sediment and the proteins move more slowly in the same direction due to sedimentation and diffusion. The difference in density between the proteins and the membrane vesicles is also much greater in iodixanol than in sucrose, primarily due to the much lower osmolality of the iodixanol gradients. Similar methods are used for the separation of liposomes from denser proteoliposomes. Sucrose gradients can be used to separate the endocytic compartments on the basis of density 32 but unless the ligand is attached...

Overlapping Differential Expression

Found that all three experimental diets significantly decrease longevity, increase the length of time to develop from egg to adult, and alter global gene expression patterns compared with the control high-sucrose diet. Preliminary microarray analyses suggest that a total of 60 genes have significantly (FDR 0.1) altered gene expression diets by all three experimental diets compared with the control diet. The life-shortening effect of palmatic acid confirms previous studies by Driver's laboratory (26). We interpret that time required from egg laying to eclosion as being inversely proportional to the quality of food, at least as it applies to proper Drosophila larval development. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests that the control (high sucrose) food also has the highest quality. This is not surprising because fruit flies typically lay eggs in rotting fruit, hence their name. Rotting fruits are high in fructose and fermentation products, which like sucrose, are quickly...

Serotonin and Nitric Oxide

Nitric oxide (NO) has also been recently proposed as a neuromodulator of the central pathways of appetite control. Central blockade of NO production inhibits food intake 62 . This condition is reversed by administration of NO donors (l-arginine) 7 . NO seems also to be involved in many central feedback systems, such as those of leptin and 5-HT 63 .

Synthesis Using Microorganisms

An alternative to transgenic plants is expression of either p-fructofuranosidases (EC or p-fructosyltransferases (EC in a microorganism such as Escherichia coli for the synthesis of inulin or short-chain fructooligosaccharides from sucrose. In this case, sucrose acts as both the fructose donor and initial acceptor (Fishbein et al., 1988). p-Fructofuranosidases with sufficient transfructosylation activity can produce fructooligosaccharides for example, the enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 has been used successfully for industrial production (Hidaka et al., 1988 Hirayama et al., 1989). The product is separated into two commercial classes Neosugar G and Neosugar P (Hidaka et al., 2001). Neosugar G contains 35 glucose and fructose (w w), 10 sucrose, and 55 fructooligosaccharides. To increase the fructooligosaccharide concentration to 95 , the monosaccharides are removed from Neosugar G, yielding Neosugar P. The sweetness of each fraction is about 60 (G) and 30...

Scientific Foundations

Fermentation is a chemical change that produces energy through the anaerobic breakdown of simple sugars. An anaerobic process is one that does not need oxygen. Fermentation usually refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol by yeast. This process is used to make beer and wine.

Cleaner Burning Fuels

Ethanol also can be made from cellulose-based biomass, such as trees and grass. Cellulose (found in plant cell walls) is made up of chains of sugar molecules. Enzymes are added to break up the chains, in order to produce simple sugars. The sugars are then fermented using yeast to produce alcohol.

Complementary DNA microarrays

Such microarrays have already been used to measure the genetic expression levels of the complete S. cerevisiae genome (around 6,400 distinct cDNA sequences) during various kinds of treatment, such as transition from sugar- to ethanol-based metabolism, or sporulation, or throughout the entire cell cycle. Such data sets are available in the public domain. Guides explaining how to construct devices that deposit cDNA onto the surfaces of microarrays, as well as how to analyze fluorescence levels, can also be found on the Internet. In addition, pre-prepared microarrays are commercially available for an increasing number of organisms, including human, rat, mouse, plant (Arabidopsis), and some bacteria. However, as already mentioned, they are readily adaptable to a wide range of available cDNA probes corresponding to individual laboratory requirements.

Fructose and Short Chain Fructans

The characteristic inulin biochemistry of Jerusalem artichoke makes it an excellent source of fructose. Fructose is the sweetest of the natural sugars its sweetness is around 16 greater than sucrose (Shallenberger, 1993). Fructose syrups are widely used by the food industry. They have a high solubility in water, fewer calories than sucrose, and are less viscous. With these properties, fructose has gained in importance within the food processing industry as a sweetener. It is an ideal sugar for use in reduced-calorie foods, foods for diabetics, and products to combat obesity. A range of fructose-containing products can be obtained from Jerusalem artichoke, including sugar solutions, pure fructose syrup, and crystalline fructose. Inulin, fructooligosaccharides, fructose, and other useful compounds can all be purified from the juice extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Fleming and GrootWassink (1979) describe a process for obtaining high-fructose syrup (75 yield) using enzyme...

N M OBrien and T P OConnor

Early work demonstrated that the incorporation of dairy products into the diet greatly decreased the development of dental caries in rats. Later work indicated that if enamel is treated with milk in vitro and subsequently washed, the solubility of the enamel is greatly reduced. This effect was attributed to the high levels of calcium and phosphate in milk or to the protective effects of casein. It has also been reported that both casein and whey proteins significantly reduced the extent of caries, with the former exerting the greater effect. Thus, evidence exists that milk proteins, calcium and phosphate all exert an anticariogenic effect. Additionally, a study in humans found that the consumption of Cheddar cheese after sweetened coffee or a sausage roll increased plaque pH, possibly due to increased salivary output. Rats fed additional meals of cheese while on a high-sucrose diet developed fewer smooth surface carious lesions and exhibited increased salivary output (which buffers...

Complete Hydrolysis Fructose Syrups

Fructose syrups are widely utilized in the food industry in that they are sweeter than sucrose, thus allowing less sugar to be used to achieve a given level of sweetness (i.e., fructose is 1.2 times sweeter than sucrose on a weight basis (Shallenberger, 1993)). In addition, fructose metabolism in humans is not insulin dependent, and it produces less tooth decay than other sugars (Roch-Norlund et al., 1972). Currently, much of the fructose used by the food industry is produced from corn starch, a glucose polymer, via hydrolysis followed by isomerization. The fructose content is around 42 but can be increased to 95 by chromatographic separation of the residual glucose and further isomerization.

Color Discrimination and Learning

Kinoshita et al. (1999) investigated newly emerged Japanese yellow swallowtails, Papilio xuthus. The butterflies were housed in a cage with a black cardboard floor, illuminated by halogen lamps. The butterflies were fed a 5 sucrose solution daily, which was placed on a colored paper patch (red, yellow, green, or blue) on the cage floor. to discriminate one color from another by presenting individual insects with the four colored patches used in training (red, yellow, green, or blue) but without any sucrose solution (figure 6.1A). After the test, the butterfly was given the previously rewarded patch for a few minutes with the sucrose reward, and then returned to its home cage. This testing regime lasted about 1 week. The rate at which the butterflies chose the target color increased with the number of training days (figure 6.2), and the rate of correct choices reached nearly 100 after 10 days of training. Kelber and Pfaff (1999) tested the Australian orchard butterfly, Papilio aegeus,...

Chemical Modification Of Inulin

An inherent problem with reducing sugars (e.g., glucose, fructose, and fructosylfructose) is their tendency to undergo undesirable discoloration and side reactions under alkaline conditions or at high temperature. Inulin also has sufficient residual reducing power to discolor (Kuzee, 1997). Exposure of inulin to a reducing agent or by electrochemical reduction prior to subsequent modification minimizes potential color alterations.

Enzymes Are Protein Catalysts

Life depends on complex networks of chemical reactions. These are mediated by enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts of enormous power and high specificity. Consider a lump of sugar. It is combustible but quite difficult to set alight. A chemical catalyst would speed up its combustion, and we would end up with heat, a little light, carbon dioxide, and water. Swallowed and digested, the sucrose is broken down in many steps to carbon dioxide and

Treatment of Iron Deficiency

For some patients iron supplements are ineffective. We do not know why some people fail to absorb supplementary iron. These patients may require intravenous iron. The kind of intravenous iron formerly used in the United States, iron dextran, caused death in approximately 0.7 percent of patients due to allergic reactions, making its use very dubious however, iron sucrose, which has been used safely in Europe for decades, is now available here. So is ferric gluconate, another form of intravenous iron. Recently, the effectiveness of iron sucrose, given intravenously weekly for five weeks, was compared with the same treatment plus erythropoietin injections in 90 anemic predialysis patients. Hematocrit rose rapidly in both groups and often could be maintained with iron treatments alone.

Sugar absorption tests

The passive absorption of molecules > 0.5 nm in size (e.g. dissacharides such as lactulose, cellobiose, sucrose or lactose) between the cells is increased by oedema, mucosal inflammation and villous atrophy. Conversely, the proportion of molecules < 0.5 nm which are absorbed transcellularly (e.g. monosaccharides such as D-mannitol, L-rhamnose or D-xylose) is unchanged or impaired. Thus, the urinary dissacharide monosaccharide ratio provides a sensitive, noninvasive index of functional integrity of the small bowel mucosa. The advantage of using differential sugar absorption tests is that both molecules are affected equally by any variation in intestinal or extraintestinal factors. Expressing the results as a ratio negates any external factors. In practice, the most commonly used test solution contains 5 g of lactulose, 100 g of sucrose and 2 g of mannitol in 450 ml of boiled, demineralized water. This is given after an overnight fast, and the lactulose mannitol ratio is measured by...

AGlucosidase inhibitors

Hypoglycemia in acarbose- or miglitol-treated subjects must be treated with simple carbohydrates found in milk, juices, or glucose tablets. Disaccharides or polysaccharides (sucrose (table sugar), candy, and soft drinks) cannot be used because the a-glucosidase inhibitory effects delay their hydrolysis and absorption.

Differentiation of the genus Thiorhodococcus from other genera

Photolithoautotrophic growth under anoxic conditions in the light with hydrogen, sulfide, thiosulfate, and S0 as electron donors. In the presence of sulfide and hydrogen carbonate, acetate, propionate, lactate, glycolate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, succinate, fructose, sucrose, ethanol, and propanol are photoassimilated. Chemolithotrophic growth with sulfide and thiosulfate, and chemoorganotrophic growth with acetate and fructose are possible under mi-crooxic conditions in the dark. Some strains (but not the type strain) assimilate sulfate. Nitrogen sources ammonium salts and N2.

Chromophores and Absorption Spectrum of Visual Pigments

To test these two hypotheses, we performed some selective light adaptation experiments. To avoid any artifacts caused by light absorption by the pigment granules, the light adaptation experiments were performed with a crude rhabdom preparation, rather than the whole eye. Rhabdoms were detached from a surgically separated retina by placing the retina in von Harreveld's solution and rotating it slowly. The crude rhabdom fraction was separated by centrifugation in a sucrose gradient and resus-pended in saline. Light microscopic observation revealed that the fraction included mainly detached rhabdoms without soma or pigment granules (figure 7.4a). The procedure was performed using a night viewer.

Genus I Ectothiorhodospira Pelsh 1936 120AL Johannes F Imhoff

Required for growth, which is dependent on saline and alkaline conditions. Compatible solutes include glycine betaine, sucrose, and N-carbamoyl-L-glutamine amide. Growth factors are not required, but vitamin B12 enhances growth of some strains. Storage products are polysaccharides, poly-b-hydroxybutyrate, and polyphosphate.

Carbohydrate in Wound Healing Modulation

Honey is a sweet syrupy substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. Its precise composition, and color, will depend on the source of the nectar. After collecting the nectar, bees return to their hive and begin to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. This product is stored in honeycombs and then subjected to evaporative water loss. This causes a rise in sugar content that prevents fermentation of the honey by naturally occurring yeasts. Honey is a mixture of sugars and other compounds. With respect to carbohydrates, honey is mainly fructose (about 38.5 ) and glucose (about 31.0 ). The remaining carbohydrates include maltose, sucrose, and other complex carbohydrates. In addition, honey contains a wide array of vitamins, such as vitamin B6, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid. Essential minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, as well as several...

Differentiation of the genus Arhodomonas from

Cells are straight, short rods, 0.8-1.0 X 2.0-2.5 im and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Metabolism is strictly chemotrophic. Simple organic compounds such as acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate, ethanol, glycerol, glutamic acid, glutamine, and xylose are used as substrates for aerobic chemotrophic growth. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannose, maltose, lactose, citrate, alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, histidine, arginine, ser-

Further descriptive information

Hydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (Galinski et al., 1985). The trivial name ectoine has been given to this component because of its first discovery in an Ectothiorhodospiraceae (at that time Ectothiorhodospira) species. This compound was later found to be widely distributed among the halophilic eubacteria (Severin et al., 1992). Unlike the Halorhodospira species, ectoine and tre-halose have not been found as osmotica in Ectothiorhodospira species (E. haloalkaliphila and E. marismortui) that characteristically accumulate glycine betaine, sucrose, and an unidentified component (Oren et al., 1991 Imhoff and Riedel, unpublished. results).

Why does LMMC brown excessively on cooking

Browning during cooking results from heat-induced Maillard reactions between the carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and the amino groups of peptides and amino acids 188 . Reducing sugars in low-moisture Mozzarella cheese (LMMC) consist of unfermented lactose and galactose at concentrations that may vary considerably depending on the sugar-fermenting characteristics of the starter culture used and the extent to which the starter bacteria survive the heat treatment during stretching 147 . Short peptides and amino acids in LMMC 146 made from high-quality milk occur primarily through secondary proteolysis by the starter bacteria 23 and may vary considerably in concentration, depending on the proteolytic characteristics of the starter culture used and the extent of starter inactivation during stretching. Browning reactions occur when adequate concentrations of both reducing sugars and products of proteolysis are present in the cheese during heating. Furthermore, browning reactions are...

Procedure 2 Immunofluorescence analysis of vimentinGolgi interaction

Figure 6.26 Binding of vimentin to Golgi membranes in vitro. (a) Recombinant vimentin alone, or recombinant vimentin incubated with purified Golgi membranes were loaded at the bottom of a sucrose density gradient and subjected to equilibrium centrifugation. Fractions were collected from the top of the gradient. An equivalent amount of each fraction was processed by SDS-PAGE, transferred to NC and immunoblot-ted with anti-vimentin and anti-GM130 antibodies. Vimentin remains in the load when centri-fuged alone, but is recovered in a lower density fraction containing the Golgi marker GM130 when incubated with Golgi elements. (b) Fractions 3 and 4 from panel A were combined, loaded at the bottom of a sucrose density gradient and subjected to another round of equilibrium cen-trifugation. Fractions were collected and analysed as in (a). Vimentin remains associated with Golgi membranes. Reproduced from The Journal of Cell Biology, 2001, 152(5), 877-893, by copyright permission of the...

Isolation and Identification of Degradation Products

Analysis and quantification of the degradation products released into the incubation medium also provide information about the modes of action of enzymes on the polymer and what linkages are more susceptible to hydrolysis. The enzymatic degradation of polyurethanes has been assessed by means of following the radioactive release of 14C-labeled degradation products.26,30-32,34,42-44,49-61 The determination of soluble reducing sugars may be used to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis of

Womens Health Premenstrual Syndrome PMS

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that generally appear 4 to 10 days before menstruation and end, often abruptly, as menstruation begins. The most common symptoms are irritability, nervous tension, depression, mood swings, craving for sugary foods, breast tenderness, water retention, and weight gain.1 The symptoms of PMS can be mild or severe about one in five women have severe symptoms that interfere with daily activities. In many women, an imbalance of too much estrogen and too little progesterone triggers the symptoms of PMS.

Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices

Simple soft drinks such as orangeade and lemonade are too acidic for the growth of most organisms, so that spoilage is generally by carbonation-resistant species such as Dekkera anomala (Stratford and James, 2003). Yeasts usually require a carbon source such as a hexose sugar, a nitrogen source such as amino acids or ammonium salts, simple salts (phosphate, sulphate, potassium and magnesium ions), trace minerals and vitamins. Some yeasts have particular sugar requirements for example, Z.bailii and Z.rouxii cannot utilise sucrose (Pitt & Hocking, 1997 Stratford et al., 2000).

How may browning of heated cheese be controlled

Much cheese manufactured now is used for ingredient applications 187 and hence cheese may be exposed to heat during processing or cooking. Browning of heated cheese is due to the Maillard pathway, which is a very complex series of reactions involving amino groups of free amino acids, peptides and proteins and a reducing sugar, and which is favoured by intermediate water activities and high temperatures. A certain degree of Maillard browning may be desirable in certain applications of cheese as an ingredient (e.g. slight browning of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella used as a pizza topping) or it may be undesirable. Control of Maillard browning in heated cheese involves removing one of the necessary reactants and or providing conditions unsuitable for browning to occur. Browning is favoured at high temperatures, pH above 6 and at intermediate aw. However, it is often impractical to vary these conditions to avoid browning and hence control of Maillard browning in cheese usually involves...

Food Plants Containing Fructans

Degree of polymerization can have a pronounced impact on the potential use of the inulin and fructooligosaccharides. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (i.e., < GF5) are of interest because of their health benefits, sweetness ( 30 of sucrose), and as a substrate for the synthesis of certain chemicals (e.g., fermentation products). Inulins with higher degrees of polymerization can be used for fat replacement and high-fructose syrups (longer chain lengths decrease the percentage of glucose in the syrup). Likewise, longer chain lengths can be systematically reduced in size by partial hydrolysis using an endo-inulinase, while lengthening is not a commercially viable option.

The Initial Velocity of an Enzyme Reaction

However, if either the substrate or the product has a property that can be measured while the reaction is proceeding, then the whole assay can be performed in one test tube. Many enzyme assays are done by using changes in the absorption of light when the substrate is converted to product. Other optical properties can be used. In their original work Michaelis and Menten studied an enzyme that breaks the disaccharide sucrose down into glucose and fructose. The mixture of glucose plus fructose rotated polarized light differently from sucrose, and they used this property to follow the course of the reaction. If there is no convenient optical property, then others may be available for example, one can monitor the progress of a reaction in which the polysaccharide glycogen (page 30) is hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes by measuring the resulting fall in viscosity.

Selective Oxidation of the Primary Hydroxyl Group

Platinum (catalyst) and molecular oxygen (oxidant) have been used to selectively oxidize carbohydrates (Abbadi and van Bekkum, 1996 Gallezot and Besson, 1995) such as sucrose (Fritsche-Lang et al., 1985 Kunz and Recker, 1995). Inulin is readily oxidized using O2 and platinum in the presence of sodium hydroxide (Verraest et al., 1998). Oxidation occurs selectively at the C-6 position with a relatively high yield (79 ). Sucrose is also selectively oxidized at the C-6 and C-6' positions under similar conditions (Edye et al., 1991, 1994). The molecular weight of the inulin influences the reaction rate and degree of oxidation. Nystose (GF3) had a degree of oxidation of 40 . As the chain length increases, the degree of oxidation declines. Inulin with an average degree of polymerization of 10 had a degree of oxidation of 28 , while at an average degree of polymerization of 30, it decreased to only 20 . In addition, the amount of by-products increases with increasing chain length and degree...

Partial Hydrolysis Inulin Oligomers

Inulin oligomers are generally considered to be fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of < 9. Within this group are the short-chain fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 2 to 4. Inulin oligomers have a number of uses. For example, the short-chain fraction can be used for its nutraceutical prebiotic properties, and also as a sweetener in that it is around 45 the sweetness of sucrose.

Desacyl Ghrelin A New Peptide

The increased hydrophobicity of the acyl side-chain may explain why acyl ghrelin circulates bound to larger plasma proteins, particularly HDL species, whereas des-acylated ghrelin circulates as free peptide. This could be important in the transport of ghrelin to centres of appetite control 10 .

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Of sucrose or glucose prompts blood sugar and insulin changes, but no corresponding effects are noted when equivalent amounts of inulin or fructooligosaccharides are ingested (Roch-Norlund et al., 1972). Therefore, consuming inulin-rich foods helps to restore normal levels of blood sugar, whereas foods containing starch and sucrose further raise blood sugar levels. Experiments during the 1980s and 1990s confirmed the beneficial role of inulin-rich foods in diabetic diets. Daily intake of fructooligosaccharides has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels in both diabetic and healthy subjects (Luo et al., 1996 Yamashita et al., 1984), for instance, while inulin reduced insulin peaks compared to diets containing other carbohydrates (Rumessen et al., 1990). An intake of around 16 to 23 g of inulin per meal has been recommended in diabetic diets (Van Loo et al., 1995). There is a long history of inulin-containing plants being used to treat diabetes. The Greek physician Theophrastus used...

Fluorescent ISH Using DIGLabeled Probes

For this ISH method, the whole procedure is carried out on free-floating sections obtained after perfusion fixation, postfixation, sucrose embedding, and cryosectioning of the brain (see Note 12). Sucrose Embedding 1. Drain PFA from the vessel containing the brain and fill it with 20 sucrose. 3. Remove the brain from the vessel, blot the excess sucrose solution with a paper towel, wrap the brain in tape-labeled aluminum foil, and freeze the brain at -80 C until ready for sectioning. Brains can be stored at -80 C for several months.

And Robust Extract From Wheat Embryos

Strate, indicating irreversible damage of ribosomes by contaminants from endosperm (Fig. 3B). High protein synthesis activity with washed embryos was also confirmed by sucrose density gradient analysis, where significant formation of polysomes was observed after 1 h of incubation, and at 2 h a shift to heavier polysomes with a concomitant decrease of 80S monomers (24). Further, in order to check the long-term stability and productivity of this new cell-free translation, it was performed using Spirin's CFCF with continuous supply of substrates and removal of small byproducts (30) the reaction proceeded for more than 60 h, yielding 0.8-4 mg of functionally active proteins per mL of reaction mixture (24). The high efficiency of our system, therefore, can be attributed to

Early History

A major proportion of the organic matter on Earth is plant tissue (biomass) and is composed of carbohydrates, principally cellulose. This is the structural support polymer of land plants and the material used since ancient times in the form of cotton and linen textiles, and later as paper. Chitin is a polymer related to cellulose that has skeletal function in arthropods and fungi. Other polymeric carbohydrates constitute the structural support framework for marine plants and the cell walls of microorganisms. The sweet carbohydrate of sugar cane, now termed sucrose, has been a dietary item for at least 10 millennia. In the early nineteenth century, individual sugars were often named after their source, for example grape sugar (Traubenzucker) for glucose and cane sugar (Rohrzucker) for saccharose (the name sucrose was coined much later). The latter sugar was subsequently obtained from the juice of the sugar beet. During that century, a number of other simple sugars (monosaccharides)...

Taxonomic Comments

Within the family Chromatiaceae, both the phylogenetic relationship and the salt responses enable us to distinguish the halophilic Halochromatium species from the marine Marichromatium and the freshwater Allochromatium species, all of which were previously known as species of the genus Chromatium (Imhoff et al., 1998b). A differentiation of groups of species is also possible based on compatible solute production. Different compatible solutes are accumulated as osmotica by Chromatiaceae species compared to Ectothiorhodospiraceae species (Severin et al., 1992 Imhoff, 1993 Welsh and Herbert, 1993). Ectoine, trehalose, and glycine betaine are common among Ectothiorhodospira and Halorhodospira species, but not found in Chromatiaceae. Instead of trehalose, the less compatible sugar sucrose was found as the major component in freshwater species including Allochromatium vinosum, Thiocystis violacea, Thiocystis minor, Thiocapsa roseopersicina, and Thiocapsa rosea (Welsh and Herbert, 1993)....


For most purposes, an isoosmotic medium containing 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4 may be used for any soft tissue or cultured animal cell. There are a number of minor variations such as adding EGTA instead of, or in addition to, EDTA and substituting Tris by an alternative organic buffer (Hepes or Tricine). Such modifications do not materially affect the result of the fractionation procedure they are normally introduced to be more compatible with some subsequent add-on procedure or analysis. Others, summarized in Table 4.1, are more critical to the isolation of a particular organelle or use of a particular tissue or cell type. The presence of divalent cations is detrimental to the functioning of mitochondria hence EDTA is regularly included in media for the isolation of these organelles (and also lysosomes and peroxisomes). Mannitol-containing media (sometimes also supplemented with K+) are also suited to 0.2 M mannitol, 50 mM sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM, 0.1 M...


Sucrose gradients only provide optimal separation of rat liver mitochondria and lyso-somes if the density of the latter is perturbed by loading with Triton WR1339 43 . In both Percoll 44 and iodinated density gradients 20,37 the density of lysosomes is sufficiently distinct that their isolation is relatively easy. Note, however, that in Percoll , lysosomes are denser than mitochondria, while in iodinated density gradient media, they are lighter. A simple flotation through a discontinuous gradient of metrizamide, originally described by Wattiaux and Wattiaux-De Coninck 39 , has more recently been adapted to Nycodenz by Olsson et al. 45 as metrizamide is no longer available commercially. Although Percoll is popular for the purification of lysosomes, the higher relative enrichment of lysosomes enzyme markers in the Nycodenz prepared organelles makes this the method of choice (see Protocol 4.12). Because, in the discontinuous gradient, the lysosomes band at the top interface, the...


Golgi membranes are often analysed along with other membrane compartments such as ER, ERGIC (the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment) and endosomes and during studies into membrane trafficking and cell signalling (see Chapter 5). Protocol 4.23. in this chapter, by contrast, is concerned primarily with the bulk (preparative) isolation of these membranes from rat liver it uses a medium containing dextran to promote the retention of Golgi stacks during homogenization. The intact Golgi stacks from mammalian liver can be sedimented at 5000g and subsequently purified by banding at a 1.2 M sucrose barrier 52 . Subsequently the Golgi can be unstacked by hydrolysing the dextran with a mixture of amylases.

Reductive Animation

Reductive amination continues to be the one of the most popular methods for binding free oligo- and poly-saccharides2022 through their reducing-end, a latent carbonyl group, to the e-amino group of the lysine residues in proteins, as first reported by Gray in 1974.23 For example, the labile aldimine (Schiff-base) 2 that is initially formed in an equilibrium reaction from glucose 1, is reduced with NaCNBH3 to afford a stable secondary amine 3. Other reducing agents, such as BH324 and NaBH(OAc)325 have also been proposed. This spacerless conjugation procedure was originally shown to be effective for simple sugars containing a masked aldehydo function like glucose or lactose but failed to occur with sugars containing a keto function like fructose, 2-deoxy-oxulosonic acid (Kdo), or sialic acid.26 A recent report demonstrated successful application of reductive amidation for conjugation of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived oligosaccharides through their reducing Kdo residue to...

Gene expression

In bacteria, certain genes are turned on or off according to the conditions in which the microorganisms are growing. For example, the bacteria Escherichia coli can use either of two sugars, lactose or glucose, for energy. They need enzymes to release energy from these sugars, and their enzyme production is encoded in their genes. If the bacteria are grown in an environment with both sugars, they prefer glucose, and express the genes for the enzymes that let them use that sugar. Digestion of lactose requires one extra enzyme, and only when the glucose


The dormant parenchyma cells contain plastids (Gerola and Dassu, 1960 Tulett et al., 1969), mitochondria, dictyosomes (Kaeser, 1988), a nucleus, and nucleoli (Williams and Jordon, 1980). The cells have high levels of arginine, glutamine, and asparagines, very low metabolism of DNA and RNA, low amounts of polysomes, and low levels of polyamines (Favali et al, 1984). They are highly vacuolated, causing the nuclei and other organelles to be adjacent to the cell walls. The vacuoles are the storage site for fructans, and vesicles are formed in the cytoplasm, facilitating fructan synthesis from sucrose entering the cell (Kaeser, 1983). There is a close association of the plastids with mitochondria and the nucleus (Figure 4.6A) (Ishikawa and Yoshida, 1985). The nuclei display regions of condensed chromatin and contain several nucleoli (Figure 4.6C) (Jordan and Chapman, 1971). The plastids vary in structure and are found both scattered in the peripheral

Dietary Conditions

Recipes, we followed a protocol that was derived from Driver and colleagues (24). The food recipes that we followed from Driver and colleagues (24) contains cornmeal, agar, oatmeal, and either sucrose or an isocaloric amount of palmitic acid, tofu, or beef (see Subheading 2.4., Buffers and Preparation of Foods). Most aging laboratories use sucrose-yeast food (no corn meal or oat meal) for better control of the nutrititve content. Finally, depending on the goals of a particular nutrigenomics study, other considerations must also be made about the food components. One might want to consider glycemic index (GI), which is related to the speed in which nutrients are digested and absorbed, or glycemic load (GL), which describes the total GI content of the diet. Simple sugars have a high GI, whereas complex carbohydrates have a low GI. According to Colombani, in a review on the importance of GI on human nutrition, It is claimed that low-GI and -GL diets favorably affect many noncommunicable...

Aerial Plant Parts

Glucose is the first sugar to form in the leaves, with fructose and sucrose occurring soon after. Fructose in the leaves accumulates first in the petioles and veins, and later in the parenchyma (Strepkov, 1960a, 1960b). The glucose content of the leaves varies between 1 and 4 of dry weight, while fructose content rises to about 7 over the summer (Rashchenko, 1959). Carbohydrate is temporarily stored in the form of inulin, but also to a much lesser extent as starch (Ernst, 1991 Schubert and Feuerle, 1997). Storage carbohydrates in the leaves are converted to sugars at night for translocation around the plant. The aboveground stems or stalks contain inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and sugars (mainly fructose). The stems contain more structural carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose), fructans, and low molecular weight sugars than the leaves (Malmberg and Theander, 1986). Apart from fructose, the sugars found in the leaves and stems are predominantly glucose, along with some sucrose,...

Microarray Analyses

Palmitic acid, soy, and beef diets fed to adult flies decrease the mean and maximum lifespans. Dark gray lines, control flies in high sucrose diets light lines, flies fed the indicated diet (see text). The mean lifespans for each diet are shown in Table 2. The log rank tests of the longevity data are also shown in Table 2. Fig. 3. Palmitic acid, soy, and beef diets fed to adult flies decrease the mean and maximum lifespans. Dark gray lines, control flies in high sucrose diets light lines, flies fed the indicated diet (see text). The mean lifespans for each diet are shown in Table 2. The log rank tests of the longevity data are also shown in Table 2. High sucrose (control) High sucrose (control)

Methods available

For many years, sucrose gradients were the principal vehicle for analysing these membrane compartments and a number of the most well-established protocols using this solute are presented in this chapter. Increasingly, however, the use of iodinated density gradient media, notably Nycodenz and iodixanol, are being used for this purpose and a number of examples of the use of these gradient solutes are given. They have several advantages over sucrose they are commercially available as dense solutions, making gradient solutions easy to prepare, and their lower osmolality compared to sucrose solutions of similar density (particularly iodixanol solutions) often results in a greater resolving power than that of sucrose. The viscosity of Nycodenz and iodixanol solutions is also lower than that of sucrose solutions of similar density and there are many examples that take advantage of the consequent more rapid movement of membrane particles through the gradient. Gradients of Nycodenz and...

Transgenic Crops

Inulin can be produced having a degree of polymerization of > 100 and degree of branching of < 3 (Engels et al., 2002 Hellwege et al., 2000). The gene from globe artichoke also produces long-chain-length inulin molecules (Heyer et al., 1999). Fructosyltransferase genes from guayule, Jerusalem artichoke (Stoop, 2004), onion (Vijn et al., 1997), and other sources have also been tested. In potato, the promoter of the B33 patatin gene is used to limit expression to the tubers and the signal sequence from the gene to direct the protein to the vacuole (Heyer and Wendenburg, 1997). A gene isolated from Jerusalem artichoke that expresses fructosyltransferase, introduced into sugar beet, caused up to 90 of the sucrose in the transgenic sugar beet roots to be converted into fructans in one experimental study (Sevenier et al., 2002). To date, however, transgenic plants do not represent a commercial source of inulin. In addition, the ecological flexibility of Jerusalem artichoke greatly...

Strange Brews

The Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in Delaware has created a sweet ale made with cinnamon, nutmeg, and brown sugar. Many other breweries add their own signature flavors to create highly unusual beers. These additions are not anything new, however. During Colonial days, when adequate barley supplies were often lacking, people added all sorts of fermentable foods, from pumpkins to parsnips, to their brewing beer. The brewing process starts by malting the barley. The barley is soaked in water, drained, and left to sit at about 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5 degrees Celcius) for a few days. This causes the husk to open. The barley at this stage is called green malt. During the malting process, enzymes in the barley convert starches, complex sugars, into simple sugars to feed the growing plant. The green malt is warmed to dry it. Wort The sugar-water solution made when malted barley is steeped in water and its complex sugars break down into simple sugars.


The precision of a 3D reconstruction from serial sections depends upon the section quality, the data acquisition method, and the procedure for section alignment. It is essential to minimize section distortions and to obtain complete series of sections. In our experiments, brains were fixed by paraformaldehyde perfusion, cryoprotected with buffered sucrose, and sectioned at 50 m on a freezing microtome. To minimize distortions, microtomy was performed carefully at stable temperatures, and cerebellar tissue (18) was embedded in gelatin prior to sectioning. Series of sections that were incomplete or contained damaged sections were not used for reconstruction.

Color Constancy

Experimental arrangement for testing butterfly color vision. A Japanese yellow swallowtail, Papilio xuthus, is first trained to a colored patch by drops of sucrose solution on the patch, which is on the black cage floor. Illumination is from a halogen light. When trained on a blue patch, the butterfly invariably lands on (A) a blue patch positioned either among patches of other colors or (B) on gray patches of different brightness. Hence the butterfly has true color vision. Experimental arrangement for testing butterfly color vision. A Japanese yellow swallowtail, Papilio xuthus, is first trained to a colored patch by drops of sucrose solution on the patch, which is on the black cage floor. Illumination is from a halogen light. When trained on a blue patch, the butterfly invariably lands on (A) a blue patch positioned either among patches of other colors or (B) on gray patches of different brightness. Hence the butterfly has true color vision. Newly emerged butterflies (postemergence...

Basic Research

An abnormality in x-ray DNA-repair capacity in progeroid fibroblasts has been suggested by Epstein and colleagues (48,49), who detected decreased singlestrand rejoining of gamma-irradiated DNA using alkaline sucrose gradients. The presence of altered DNA-repair capability was found in another study. Using a somewhat modified method for the assay of single-stranded rejoining, no differences between one progeroid strain and two atypical progeroid strains were seen


Cytoskeletal buffer (10 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, 300 mM sucrose, 100 mM NaCl, 3 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM EGTA) To make 1 l of the stock solution use 3.024 g of PIPES, 102.69 g of sucrose, Extraction buffer (10 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, 250 mM ammonium sulfate, 300 mM sucrose, 3 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA) To make 1 l of this stock solution use 3.024 g of PIPES, 102.69 g of sucrose, Digestion buffer (10 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, 300 mM sucrose, 50 mM NaCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA) To make 1 l of this stock solution use 3.024 g of PIPES, 102.69 g of sucrose, 2.922 g of NaCl, 0.6099 g of MgCl2-6H2O and 0.3804 g of EGTA. Titrate to pH 6.8 with 1 M NaOH. Freeze in aliquots at -20 C. 2M NaCl buffer (10 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, 300 mM sucrose, 2 M NaCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA) To make 1 l of this stock solution use 3.024 g of PIPES, 102.69 g of sucrose, 116.88 g of NaCl, 0.6099 g of MgCl2-6H2O and 0.3804 g of EGTA. Titrate to pH 6.8 with 1 M NaOH. Freeze in aliquots at -20 C.

Genes In Melanoma

In Hs294T cells a constitutive NF-kB complex is detected and the time course for NF-kB deactivation is delayed. ARPE and Hs294T cells were stimulated with IL-1 (5 U mL) for 0.5, 1, and 2.5 h. Following stimulation, nuclei were isolated by sucrose gradient purification and nuclear extracts were obtained. (A) NF-kB activity was determined by EMSA using the 36-bp NF-kB element from the MGSA GRO-a gene. (B) Nuclear extracts were analyzed by Western analysis for p65 and p50. Nuclear extracts were separated on a 7.5 sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. Following transfer of the proteins to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)-Immobilon, p65 and p50 were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) using antibodies to these proteins. (Reprinted with permission from Cancer Res. 57 3032-3039, 1997.) Fig. 2. In Hs294T cells a constitutive NF-kB complex is detected and the time course for NF-kB deactivation is delayed. ARPE and Hs294T cells were stimulated with IL-1 (5 U mL) for 0.5,...


An assortment of mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides have been carboxymethylated (e.g., cellulose, sucrose) for a diverse range of applications. Carboxymethylation of a polysaccharide involves primary or secondary alcohol groups being esterified with carboxymethyl groups. Inulin can be carboxymethylated in an aqueous alkaline solution by reacting with monochloroacetic acid (Figure 5.5) forming O-(carboxymethyl)inulin (8) (Verraest et al., 1996a). The degree of substitution is affected by the ratio of inulin to monochloroacetic acid and the reaction temperature. As the degree of substitution increases (i.e., > 1.0) and the degree of polymerization increases (i.e., average of 30 or above), its effectiveness in inhibiting the precipitation of calcium carbonate increases. O-(Carboxymethyl)inulin displays a very low viscosity in aqueous solutions, and in certain applications, this is a distinct advantage over O-(carboxymethyl)cellulose.

Dental Decay

Formation of healthy teeth is supported by proper diet during childhood - ample protein, calcium, phosphate, and vitamins C and D are particularly important. Diet is also important in the prevention of dental caries. Repeated exposure of the teeth to sugar by frequent snacking on sugary foods and drinks will substantially increase risk of dental caries. Resistance to dental caries is increased if the diet contains optimum amounts of fluoride. Fluoride is incorporated into the crystals that form the tooth enamel, making them more resistant to acid. In many areas, fluoridation of the water or salt supply provides children with ample fluoride. In areas where the flu-

Diet Acne

Foods) can aggravate acne by increasing sebum production. Foods high in refined carbohydrates (particularly sucrose) and low in fiber can also stimulate sebum production. Food sensitivities (especially to nuts and colas) can trigger acne in susceptible individuals. Acne can be caused by preparations containing iodine, such as kelp products and certain medicines.

Diet Gingivitis

A diet high in refined carbohydrates (especially sucrose) promotes periodontal dis-ease.1 Frequent consumption of sugar increases plaque build-up and risk of gingivitis. Sugars also promote periodontal disease by reducing the ability of the white blood cells in the gums to destroy the pathogenic plaque bacteria. Sucrose is particularly destructive in sticky form (like candy and baked goods) because it clings longer to the teeth. Regular intake of foods rich in vitamin C2, high-quality protein, and zinc can help maintain the integrity of the periodontal tissues.

Diet Caries

Sucrose is extremely cariogenic, whereas lactose (milk sugar) and fructose are less likely to cause caries. Unlike sugars, fats and protein cannot be used by bacteria to produce acid. Moreover, fats can coat the teeth and form a protective layer, whereas proteins increase the buffering capacity of the saliva. Milk products or cheese rather than sugary foods at the end of meals can reduce acid formation and help prevent tooth decay.

Making Champagne

The grape juice into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. How long the wine is left to ferment, and therefore how much sugar is left in the wine, determines how sweet it will be. If all the sugar is fermented, the wine is said to be dry. The fermentation process can take several weeks. The carbon dioxide that is created during fermentation is allowed to escape, so the wine does not become bubbly. After fermentation, red wines are sent to a press to remove the skins. Both red and white wines are filtered to remove the yeast left during the fermentation process.

Diet Diabetes

The best diet for most diabetics is one low in refined sugars and high in complex carbohydrates and fiber (which slow absorption of dietary sugars, reducing peaks in blood glu-cose).4 Foods such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains should be emphasized, and adopting a mainly vegetarian diet can be beneficial. To reduce elevated blood lipids and lower risk of cardiovascular disease, saturated fat intake should be minimized and replaced by high-quality plant oils that supply essential PUFAs.


Oversecretion of insulin in response to meals produces a disorder termed reactive hypoglycemia. In reactive hypoglycemia meals rich in simple sugars and refined carbohydrates stimulate a large insulin response the insulin then pushes down blood glucose to below normal levels.16 Symptoms most often occur mid-morning and mid-to-late-after

Fructose Intolerance

Natural form of sugar (glucose) found in corn. They turned white powdery corn starch into a clear, sweet syrup. The syrup was easier and less expensive to make than table sugar (sucrose), and much sweeter. Food and beverage manufacturers soon began adding this artificial corn syrup to their products, instead of using table sugar, which costs more. Food companies liked the syrup because it did not turn hard or form crystals, like others sugars can. Because high-fructose corn syrup stays moist, snacks like cookies can be made soft and chewy. Another benefit of the sweet syrup was that is stayed sweet and did not lose any flavor even when stored in places where the temperature changed.

Diagnostic Testing

Laboratories, Lenexa, KS) or can be prepared locally (62). 2 SP (10 v v heat-inactivated fetal calf serum with 0.2M sucrose in 0.02M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2), which is also used for transport of specimens for chlamydial cultures, is also acceptable. Other media available commercially for transport and storage of specimens include Stuart's medium, A3B, and arginine broth. From a practical standpoint, transport media can be kept frozen in small volumes in a freezer located in a clinical unit so that it can be rapidly thawed and used to inoculate specimens at bedside.


To estimate water needs, an athlete can weigh him herself after a workout if body weight drops more than 2 during exercise, fluid intake has probably been inadequate. In general, at least two large glasses of cool fluid should be consumed for every 0.5 kg of body weight lost. Fluids that are cool and diluted (containing less than 6 sugar) are absorbed more rapidly than concentrated fluids (more than 10 sugar).5 Fruit juices, soft drinks, and many sports drinks have more than 10 sugar, and will be more rapidly absorbed if diluted with about two to three parts water. If exercise exceeds 60 minutes, a sports beverage containing sucrose, glucose, glucose polymers, or maltodextrin can be beneficial, providing energy for muscles and potentially increasing endurance.3,5


The opioid peptide NOP (Orphanin FQ) also stimulates feeding after intracerebroventricular administration. The increased feeding is antagonized by naloxone. Central administration of NOP stimulated both carbohydrate and fat intake in fat-preferring rats, but did not stimulate food intake in sucrose-preferring animals or those without a dietary preference. NOP and the nonpeptide agonist Ro 64-6198 (Figure 16) reversed the anorexic effects of restraint stress or central administration of CRF. These effects were antagonized by prior treatment with a NOP antagonist. Very little has been done to understand the effects of chronic agonists and antagonists on food consumption, body weight gain, and body composition. These data would be very helpful to understand the potential utility of these compounds for the treatment of obesity. NOP agonists have also shown promise as antistress anxiolytic compounds, while NOP antagonists such as J-113397 (Figure 16) have been reported to have efficacy in...

K ODonnell

The use of carbohydrate sweeteners in juices and drinks has increased ever since the times of Captain Cook, when sugar was used to preserve juices. Sugar (sucrose) is still regarded as the 'gold' standard for taste delivery and mouthfeel. Carbohydrate-based sweeteners still represent the largest share of the global sweetener market and currently account for 81 of sweetener usage (Cosgrove, 2003). Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show the current split globally and in the United States of various sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrups dominate the carbohydrate-sweetened soft drinks sector in some markets - notably in the United States. However, in other markets, for example, Europe, the use of high-fructose glucose syrups (HFGS) is restricted by production quotas, and a variety of carbohydrate products including sucrose, glucose syrups, fructose and fructose syrups are used. 4.2.1 Sucrose Sucrose is regarded as the 'gold' standard for a sweet taste. It is manufactured from cane or beet and available...

The Sugar Solution

The Sugar Solution

Curb Sugar Cravings Once And For All With These Powerful Techniques. Sugar sensitive people might be low in specific neurochemicals that help us feel calm, centered, confident, and optimistic. Sugar is a drug that temporarily makes the sugar sensitive feel better, but with damaging consequences.

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