Vessel Entry

In general, a central retinal artery and vein divide into upper and lower branches, which in turn divide into nasal and temporal branches close to the disc margin. Many variations in the pattern are seen normally. The veins are darker and wider than the arteries and, unlike the arteries, can be seen to pulsate spontaneously in 80% of the population if examined carefully. In the other 20% of normal individuals, venous pulsation at the disc can be induced by gentle pressure on the globe.

Figure 22.1. Normal optic disc in a myope and b hypermetrope.

Figure 22.1. Normal optic disc in a myope and b hypermetrope.

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