The roving eye movements are described as pendular, the eyes tending to swing from side to side. Examination of the eyes reveals one of the various underlying causes: congenital cataract, albinism, aniridia, optic atrophy or other causes of visual impairment in both eyes. A special kind of retinal degeneration known as Leber's amaurosis can present as congenital nystagmus. The condition resembles retinitis pigmentosa, being a progressive degeneration of the rods and cones, and occurs at a young age. It tends to lead to near blindness at school age. Patients with congenital nystagmus usually need to be examined under general anaesthesia, and elec-troretinography (a technique that can detect retinal degenerations at an early stage) should be performed at the same time.
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