Normal Disc

One must be familiar with some of the variations found in otherwise normal individuals before being able to diagnose pathological changes. The optic discs mark the entrance of the optic nerves to the eye and this small circular part of the fundus is nonseeing and corresponds with blind spots in the visual field. When examining an optic disc, five important features are to be noted: the colour, the margins or contour, the vessel entry, the central cup and the presence or absence of haemorrhages.

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