Mitochondrial Inheritance

Mitochondria are the only organelles of the cell besides the nucleus that contain their own DNA. They also have their own machinery for synthesising RNA and proteins. Instead of individual chromosomes, mitochondria contain circular DNA similar to bacteria (from which they are thought to be derived). Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes,predominately encoding the enzymes necessary for the respiratory chain. All mitochondria in the zygote are derived from the ovum; therefore, a mother carrying a mitochondrial DNA mutation will pass it on to all of her children (maternal inheritance) but only her daughters will pass it on to their children. Mito-chondrial DNA mutations are usually manifest clinically in tissues with a high metabolic demand, for example brain, nerve, retina, muscle and renal tubule. Examples of ophthalmic diseases caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations include Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, chronic progressive external ophthal-moplegia, maternally inherited diabetes and deafness, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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