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PTE Success online exam preparation Summary


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Table 3 Reading Difficulty Of The Scales

The advantages of using the CSQ and SSS scales in other cultural and language settings versus independent development of unique instruments for each ethnic and culture group, lie in the well-established psychometric properties of the scales. However, the psychometric adequacy must be freshly confirmed for each new translation. Development of unique instruments for non-English language groups, and non-U.S. cultural contexts would require the same rigorous process of establishing basic psychometric adequacy. For cross-cultural use of a pre-existing instrument, functional equivalence (i.e., measures the same attribute in different groups) and score equivalence are important concerns (i.e., subjects from different cultural groups who receive the same scores as the referent group have the same amount of the attribute being measured) (Poortinga, 1975, cited in Davidson & Thomson, 1980, p. 32). Unfortunately, achieving score equivalence is extremely difficult due to a host of factors, such...

Administration of the CSQ and SSS Scales in Other Cultural and Language Contexts

We anticipate several potential non-English and cross-cultural contexts for the use of the scales. These might include (1) minority non-English speaking clients where few staff (e.g., the client's clinician) speak the client's language (2) specialty clinics for minority non-English speaking clients where most or all clinicians and support staff speak the client's language (3) clinics with multiethnic, non-English speaking clients using a variety of languages, where some staff speak the client's language, or are assisted by interpreters and, (4) non-U.S. settings where the clients and staff speak the same non-English language. Each of these situations may call for different administration techniques in regards to who determines the language and literacy competence of the client and evaluates if the questionnaire can be self-administered or if the clients will need assistance, who explains the questionnaire to the client, and who administers the questionnaire or assists with the...

Timing And Routes Of Transmission

Infection of the fetus through the umbilical cord with M. tuberculosis is rare, with fewer than 300 cases reported in the English language literature. These infants' mothers frequently suffer from TB disease during pregnancy or soon after. The intensity of lymphohematogenous spread during pregnancy is one of the factors that determine if congenital TB will occur. M. tuberculosis has been demonstrated in the deciduas, am-nion, and chorionic villi of a hematogenously infected placenta. Organisms also can reach the placenta by direct extension from a tuberculous salpingeal tube. However, even massive involvement of the placenta does not necessarily give rise to congenital infection. It is not clear if the fetus can be infected directly from the mother's bloodstream without a caseous lesion forming first in the placenta, but this route of transmission has been demonstrated in experimental animal models.

Postnatal Evaluation Of The Infant

Distinguishing between congenital and postnatally acquired TB is often difficult although this distinction may be clinically insignificant as it does not alter treatment of the infant. In congenital TB, which is extremely rare, the infant must be infected prior to or at the time of birth. Congenital transmission should be considered if the mother has untreated active disease at the time of delivery or soon after. The risk to the fetus is greater in cases of disseminated disease in the mother, such as meningitis or miliary TB, or in cases involving the genitourinary tract, when organisms may infect the amniotic fluid or placenta. Guidelines for diagnosing congenital TB based on previously published criteria by Beitzke (17) were revised and updated in 1994 by Cantwell and coworkers (18) and suggest the following criteria for diagnosing congenital TB (1) lesions in the first week of life (2) a primary hepatic complex or caseating hepatic granulomas (3) TB infection of the placenta,...

It is apparent that spoken language development occurs spontaneously in the presence of normal hearing from birth given

The slow speech and language progress in profoundly deaf children achieved with oral methods promoted the development of various systems for providing visual support to spoken English. During the 1970s, different forms of signed English were widely used in classrooms across the country 7 . The 'total communication' (TC) approach reduced the emphasis on audition and speech training compared to auditory-oral methods and increased visual language input, but the levels of English language competence exhibited by deaf children did not improve 8, 9 . Cued speech, a system developed to visually convey spoken language at the phonemic level using hand shapes and placements to complement and for decreasing ambiguities in lip reading, has been adapted to more than 40 languages. This system has been most widely used and evaluated in the French language 10 but has had limited application in educational programs in the US. Girls exhibit a verbal advantage over boys in both hearing 43 and...

The Asylum

The first known asylum for the insane was the St. Mary of Bethlehem Hospital, later named Bethlehem (or bethlem) Hospital, which bequeathed as a gift to the English language its colloquial soubriquet bedlam. Although it has a longer history, its status as an asylum for the insane began when Henry VIII gave it royal approval in 1547.

Identifying trials

Systematic reviews should attempt to locate information on all pertinent trials and will almost always need to go beyond a simple search ofbibliographic databases for relevant publications. Not only are positive trials more likely to be published than negative or inconclusive ones, but particularly striking results are perhaps more likely to be published in those English language 38 high-impact journals indexed by bibliographic databases. Furthermore, such databases do not cover all medical journals - MEDLINE, for example, indexes less than 4000 out of around 16,000 biomedical journals and EMBASE indexes 4000. Systematic reviews that restrict trial identification to searches of bibliographic databases and exclude unpublished trials, trials published in non-English language journals, or those reported in the 'grey' literature (meeting abstracts, theses, etc.) can lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effectiveness 39-41 . It is therefore important to employ a well thought out...

Using This Chapter

Under Resource Guide and Essential Care tabs, in-depth information on specific underlying diagnoses medical management of pain and other major side effects during and after cancer treatment and more. Much of the information is available in non-English language translations.


While the storage organ of the Jerusalem artichoke is anatomically a tuber (i.e., an underground structure consisting of a solid thickened portion or outgrowth of a stem or rhizome, of a more or less rounded form, and bearing eyes or buds from which new plants arise (Simpson and Weiner, 1989)), in the early literature it is referred to as a root. This is because the term tuber, derived from the Latin tuber, was not in the English language until 1668, when it was first used by Wilkins in his Essay towards a Real Character, and Philosophical Language (Wilkins, 1668).

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