Dry Eye Holistic Treatments Ebook

Dry Eye Handbook The Ultimate Dry Eye Treatment

The Dry Eye Handbook is based on extensive independent research over a 10 year period. The publication is ideally suited for everything from mild to severe cases of dry eye. The Dry Eye Handbook has helped hundreds of dry eye sufferers to date, and its appreciated by individuals, larger organisations as well as ophthalmologists. You will learn: #1. How to diagnose your specific case of dry eye most doctors actually have a hard time getting this correct. #2. How to start a proper dry eye treatment dont waste time doing the wrong things, get off to a correct start quickly. #3. The best diet for dry eyes learn what to eat and drink to create the biggest impact on your eye health. #4. The best eye drops for dry eyes find out what eye drops you should use for your specific case of dry eyes. #5. The best supplements for dry eyes find out all there is about anti-inflammatory supplements, oil supplements and much more. #6. The newest treatments find out the best and most innovative treatments for dry eye (constantly updated) #7. How to treat Meibomian Gland Dysfunction find out all there is about the best supplements, eye drops, eyelid scrubs, eyelid massages, heat compresses, removing chalazia and styes and much, much more. #8. How to treat Blepharitis get the details on how to reduce inflammation by using the best supplements, diets, artificial tears, eyelid scrubs and much more. #9. How to treat Aqueous Tear Deficiency if youre suffering from a lack of tears or a incorrect composition of your tears I will show you how to increase tear production, stabilise the tear film and several additional areas that will improve your eye comfort considerably.

Dry Eye Handbook The Ultimate Dry Eye Treatment Summary

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Corneal Epithelium Protection for Dry Eye Syndrome and Other Corneal Disorders

Dry eye syndrome, which affects approximately 10-20 of the adult population, is a clinical condition of ocular discomfort caused by deficient tear production and or excessive tear evaporation. Artificial tears are often effective for relieving the symptoms of mild and moderate dry eye syndrome by replenishing the deficient tear volume. Sodium hyaluronate has been proposed as a component of artificial tears because of its viscoelastic rheology. The efficacy of eyedrops containing sodium hyaluronate was examined in the treatment of dry eye syndrome, and the presence of sodium hyaluronate was found to reduce the symptoms of ocular irritation and lengthen the noninvasive breakup time in subjects with dry eye syndrome more effectively than saline, in terms of the peak effect and duration of action (111). Similarly, many clinical studies have shown that sodium hyaluronate effectively improved ocular surface conditions associated with dry eye syndrome (112-116). Basic studies have been...

Precorneal Residence of Hyaluronan

Sodium hyaluronan solutions have been advocated for the management of a variety of dry eye states, and sodium hyaluronan could be used as an additive in various drug-release systems for the eye. Quantitative gamma scintigraphy was used to evaluate the precorneal residence times of 0.2 and 0.3 sodium hyaluronate solutions and a polymer-free solution of buffered saline in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and a group of normal volunteers (109). The mean values for the sodium hyaluronate solutions were significantly longer than those for buffered saline. Gurny et al. reported that

Ocular Surface Disorders

When a modification of the tear film structure occurs, with consequent tear film instability, ocular surface stress will develop, resulting in a clinical condition known as dry eye. The classification of this disorder was carried out in 1995 by the National Eye Institute, dividing dry eye into two different types aqueous layer disorders and tear evaporation disorders (32). This classification is very useful to focus on the main causative factors of the disorder, although the clinical presentation is often a mix of the two pathogenic pathways (i.e., a reduced aqueous production often results in an inadequate lipid layer spreading and in excessive tear film evaporation meibomian gland disease is commonly associated with reduced aqueous secretion by the lacrimal gland). Aqueous layer deficiency is the most common cause of dry eye and is dependent on decreased secretion of the lacrimal glands, although increased evaporation of tears may also be involved. Main causes of tear aqueous...

Hyaluronan as a Tear Substitute

The therapy of dry eye was based for many years on the use of the so-called artificial tears, which are, to date, the mainstay for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. They were designed with a focus on physical properties relating to wetting of the ocular surface and usually were based on the presence of hydrophilic polymers, used with the intent to lubricate the eye during blinking. With this purpose, several artificial tears were designed using HA alone or in association with other molecules. Aiming to obtain an optimal solution for the treatment of ocular surface disorders, several molecular weights and several concentrations of HA were used in artificial tears formulation. HA used as a base for artificial tears can be produced from biological sources (the most frequent being rooster comb and certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria). The molecular weight used varies from 6-7 X 105 to 3 X 106 D. The concentration used varies from 0.015 to 0.4 according to the molecular weight used...

Effect on the Diseased Ocular Surface

HA eye drops have been used in several trials for the treatment of dry eye (63 - 69). The eyes of patients suffering from severe dry eye syndrome are characterized by a deterioration of the corneal epithelium with development of punctate erosions and increased permeability. The conjunctival epithelium of such patients presents squamous metaplasia with decreased or abnormal goblet cells (74) and hence the need for a tear replacement able to provide an environment in which the epithelium can recover the normal structure and function. A topical application of HA was shown to confer both subjective and objective improvement in patients with dry eye syndrome or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) (68,75-78). Condon et al. (79) have reported a reduction in cell degeneration as assessed by rose bengal. Accordingly, Wysenbeek et al. (80) indicated that HA is able to protect the corneal epithelium. In a controlled study aimed to explore the long-term effect of HA eye drops on the ocular surface...

Summary and Conclusions

A topical application of HA has been shown to confer both subjective and objective improvement in patients with dry eye syndrome or keratoconjunc-tivitis sicca. 7. The treatment of severe aqueous deficient dry eye and dry eye states related to increased tear osmolarity benefit from a hypotonic solution of HA. HA is an essential component of tear film and the ocular surface. Its physical and chemical properties render it suitable for tear film replacement since it has been demonstrated that its administration proved to ameliorate the ocular surface in the course of dry eye disorders. Further studies are needed in order to achieve a better understanding about which physico-chemical characteristics, such as molecular weight and dilution, are more suitable to treat the various forms of ocular surface diseases.

Introduction Ocular Anatomy and Diseases

Most information about our surroundings is gathered by the eye, which is literally a 'window' for the brain. With an aging population, the prevalence of sight-threatening ocular diseases continues to increase. Thus, for instance, more than 70 million people suffer from glaucoma worldwide.1-3 Visual impairment caused by diabetes affects up to 90 of diabetics over 10 years of age. Likewise, pathological dry eye and ocular allergic conditions afflict > 100 million patients worldwide, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly, affecting up to 28 of patients after the seventh decade of life.2 Consequently, the discovery and development of therapeutic products for the treatment of these various ocular diseases is of paramount importance, and is being actively pursued within the pharmaceutical industry.1-3

Ocular Surface Diseases

6.12.10.2 Drugs for Treating Dry Eye Another series of disorders of the ocular surface is 'dry eye.' Dry eye is characterized by deficits in tear production secretion and deficiencies in the quality of tears, thereby causing ocular discomfort, itching, and a foreign body sensation on the ocular surface.95 It has recently been recognized that several aspects of dry eye involve an inflammatory cascade. Sjogren's syndrome (keratoconjunctivis sicca) is a common (affects 0.5 of adult women) autoimmune disorder of the lacrimal and salivary glands that causes ocular dryness. Treatments for dry eye have traditionally sought to reduce the symptoms of dryness by hydrating and lubricating the ocular surface with artificial tears. However, this is rarely sufficient and pharmacotherapy is necessary to prevent corneal and or conjunctival damage. Therapeutic approaches include use of immune suppressive anti-inflammatory agents, such as the fungal-derived peptide, cyclosporin, and topical...

Hyaluronan in Diseased Ocular Surface Tissues

The eyes of patients suffering from ocular surface disease such as dry eye are characterized by a deterioration of the corneal epithelium with a development of punctate erosions and increased permeability. Compared with normal eyes, the conjunctiva of such patients presents squamous metaplasia with decreased or abnormal goblet cells. In addition, HA and its receptor CD44 modify their pattern of distribution within the ocular surface structures.

Clinical Findings

Common name Vitamin A (deficiency xerophthalmia). Chemical name Retinol. Source Liver and vegetable carotenoids. Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) Females, 2550 years old, 2700 IU males slightly higher. Toxic dose 25,000 IU kg bolus, 25,000 IU per day every 30 days such doses have been used to treat cystic acne. Antidote None.

Signs

Visual acuity is usually normal in conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva appears hyperaemic and there can be evidence of purulent discharge on the lid margins, causing matting together of the eyelashes. The redness of the conjunctiva extends to the conjunctival fornices and is usually less marked at the limbus. When a rim of dilated vessels is seen around the cornea, the examiner must suspect a more serious inflammatory reaction within the eye. Apart from being red to a greater or lesser degree,the eyes also tend to water, but a dry eye might lead one to suspect conjunctivitis results from inadequate tear secretion. Drooping of one or both upper lids is a feature of some types of viral conjunctivitis and this can be accompanied by enlargement of the preauricular lymph nodes. The ophthalmologist should train himself or herself to feel for the preauricular node as a routine part of the examination of such a case. Closer inspection of the conjunctiva might reveal numerous small papillae,...

Conclusion

Peter Klimko was born in Detroit, Michigan, in 1965. He obtained his BSc degree in chemistry from Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, in 1987 and his PhD in synthetic organic chemistry from Texas A& M University in 1992 under the direction of Professor Daniel Singleton. After postdoctoral studies with Professor Charles Swindell at Bryn Mawr College, investigating the development of an efficient synthetic route to taxane diterpenes, Dr Klimko started at Alcon Laboratories in 1993 as a medicinal chemist. His research interests have included the exploration of prostaglandin SAR with respect to lowering intraocular pressure and the effect of arachidonic acid metabolites on dry eye symptoms.

Chronic Gvhd

The treatment of chronic GVHD has also been problematic with long-term immunosuppressive therapy required for many patients with symptomatic disease. With the routine use of PBPC, and the transplantation of older patients, the problem of extensive chronic GVHD has increased.9798 Treatment strategies must weigh the need to ameliorate the clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD against the risks of long-term (often lifetime) administration of immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to infection, osteonecrosis, and secondary malignancy). Some recent series have focused on local control of chronic GVHD manifestations, such as oral cyclosporine rinses or ophthalmic cyclosporine solution for xerostomia and xerophthalmia, respectively.99100 Extracorporeal photopheresis has been shown to be an effective salvage strategy for patients with steroid refractory GVHD.101 The cumulative morbidity of immuno-suppressive therapy can hopefully be lessened with this approach. Long-term...

Artificial Tears

Puncta or the use of mucolytic agents. The first step is to make the diagnosis. Once a deficiency of tears has been confirmed, the mainstay of treatment is hypromellose. Adsorptive polymers of acrylic acid can also give symptomatic relief. Polyvinyl alcohol is another compound present in a number of tear substitutes. Recently, a new agent, sodium hyaluronate (0.1 ) has been shown to improve symptom relief and improve the ocular surface abnormalities in cases of severe dry eye. By their nature, tear substitutes tend to adhere to the surface of the eye and in the conjunctival sac. For this reason, their prolonged use is liable to give rise to preservative reactions. Preservative-free preparations are often preferable. Some patients with a severe dry eye problem might need to instill the drops every hour or even more frequently.