Fr901228

Oxamflatin

Phenylbutyrate

Pyroxamide

Sodium butyrate

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

Trapoxin

Trichostatin A

Other

Cerivastatin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase inhibitor)

Cyclosporin A

Leflunomide

Prodigiosin 25 C (from Serratia marcescens) Microcolin A (lipopeptide from Lyngbya majuscula)

2,2'-[3-Methoxy-1'-amyl-5'-methyl-4-(1-pyrryl)]dipyrrylmethene (from Micrococcus sp.)

a Mechanisms of action vary. Note that not all mentioned substances are in clinical use; for some, only animal data are available.

Hapten

Prohapten

Figure 4 Summary of possible immunotoxic effects of low-molecular-weight chemicals. For details see text.

Danger signal

Signal disruptor Other

Figure 4 Summary of possible immunotoxic effects of low-molecular-weight chemicals. For details see text.

As the immunotoxic effects are unknown for the vast majority of the chemicals on the market, let alone their mixtures, it is urgent to take toxicology (i.e., immunotoxicology) from a predominantly observational science at the level of disease-specific models to a predominantly predictive science focused upon a broad inclusion of target-specific, mechanism-based, biological observations. At the same time, toxicogenomics might provide routes to valid and robust biomarkers of exposure.

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