Conclusions

The foregoing account has demonstrated that a large number of controlled release veterinary drug delivery systems have been developed using a variety of technologies that range from the relatively uncomplicated (e.g. a mixture of drug plus polymer) to the more complex (e.g. osmotic) systems. The mechanism of drug release varies with the technology used to manufacture the drug delivery system, which in turn influences the resultant plasma profiles and therefore its suitability for a particular health or production application. However, knowledge of the release mechanism allows for a priori design and evaluations and enables the formulator to optimize a drug delivery system through rational modifications to the size, geometric configuration and/or components which comprise the delivery system.

References

1. Chien YW, Lau EPK. Controlled drug release from polymeric delivery devices IV. In vitro-in vivo correlation of subcutaneous release of norgestomet from hydrophilic implants. J Pharm Sci 1976;65:488-492.

2. Chien YW. Parenteral drug delivery and delivery systems. In: Chien YW, editor. Novel drug delivery systems: fundamentals, developmental concepts, biomedical assessments. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1982. pp. 381-528.

3. Rathbone MJ. Preface. Veterinary Drug Delivery: Part I. Adv Drug Del Rev 1997;28:301-302.

4. Baggot JD, Brown SA. Basis for selection of the dosage form. In: Hardee GE, Baggot JD, editors. Development and formulation of veterinary dosage forms. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1997. pp. 7-143.

5. Cardinal JR. Intraluminal devices. Adv Drug Del Rev 1997;28:303-322.

6. Crank J. The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

7. Dzuik PJ, Cook B. Passage of steroids through silicone rubber. Endocrinology 1966;78:208.

8. Dziuk PJ, Cook C, Niswender GD, Kaltenback CC, Doane BB. Inhibition and control of estrus and ovulation in ewes with a subcutaneous implant of silicone rubber impregnated with a progestogen. Am J Vet Res 1968;29:2145-2417.

9. Dziuk P, Cook C, Kaltenback C, Niswender D. Control of heat in ewes by an implanted progestogen. J Anim Sci 1966;25:922.

10. Chien YW. Controlled drug release from polymeric delivery systems: biomedical applications and physico-

chemical principles. In: Juliano R, editor. Drug delivery systems characteristics and biomedical applications. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. pp. 11-83.

11. Dresback DS. Delivery system. US Patent 4,220,153 (1980).

12. Jones RM. Therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of morantel when administered directly into the rumen of cattle on a continuous basis. Vet Parasitol 1983;12:223-232.

13. Viswanathan, R., DePrince, R.B. Delivery device for the administration of stabilised growth promoting hormones. US Patent 4,917,685 (1990).

14. Kabadi MB, Chien YW. Intravaginal controlled administration of flurogestone acetate II: Development of an in vitro system for studying the intravaginal release and permeation of flurogestone acetate. J Pharm Sci 1984;73:1464-1468.

15. Kabadi M, Chien YW. Intravaginal controlled administration of fluorogestone acetate: (III) Development of rate-control vaginal devices. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1985;11:1271-1312.

16. Kabadi M, Chien YW. Intravaginal controlled administration of fluorogestone acetate: (IV) In Vitro-In Vivo correlation for intravaginal drug delivery from rate-control vaginal pessary. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1985;11:1313-1361.

17. Brewer MD, Griffin GJL. Sustained release compositions. US Patent 4,228,149 (1980).

18. Folckemer F, Hanson R. Resin compositions comprising organophosphorus pesticides. US Patent 3,319,769 (1967).

19. von Bittera M, Sieveking H, Stendel W, Voege H. Polyurethanes having ectoparasiticidal activity. US Patent 4,189,467 (1980).

20. von Bittera M, Federmann M, von Gizycki U, Stendel W, Dorn H, Ectoparasiticide-containing collars for pets. US Patent 4,543,247 (1985).

21. Boettcher T. Insecticide devices, E.P. 3,692,24 (1990).

22. Shikinami Y. Controlled release insect pest repellent. E.P. 3,67,140 (1990).

23. Yakuka D. Pest repellent collar for pets. Japan Patent 63,307,801 (1988).

24. Cardinal JR. Matrix devices. In: Langer RS, Wise DL, editors. Medical applications of controlled release, vol. 1, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1984, pp. 41-67.

25. Rathbone MJ, Macmillan KL, Bunt CR, Burggraaf S. Conceptual and commercially available intravaginal veterinary drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Del Rev 1997;28:363-392.

26. Rathbone MJ, Macmillan KL, Inskeep EK, Burggraaf S, Bunt CR. Fertility regulation in cattle. J Control Release 1998;54:117-148.

27. Rathbone MJ, Macmillan KL, Jochle W, Boland MP, Inskeep EK. Controlled-release products for the control of the estrus cycle in cattle, sheep, goats, deer, pigs and horses. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carr Syst 1998; 15:285-380.

28. Bunt CR, Rathbone MJ, Burggraaf S, Ogle CR. Development of a QC release assessment method for a physically large veterinary product containing a highly water insoluble drug and the effect of formulation variables upon release. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 1997;24:145-146.

29. Ferguson TH, Needham GF, Wagner JF. Compudose® An implant system for growth promotion and feed efficiency in cattle. J Control Release 1988;8:45-54.

30. Baker RW, Lonsdale HK. Controlled release: mechanism and rates. In: Tanquary AC, Lacey DL, editors. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol. 47, New York: Plenum Press, 1974. pp. 15.

31. Boettner WA, Aguiar AJ, Cardinal JR, Curtiss AC, Ranade GR, Richards JA, Sokel WA. The morantel sustained release trilaminate; a device for the controlled delivery of morantel to cattle. J. Control Release 1988;8:23-30.

32. Auer, H., Khan, M.A., Bernstien, H., Controlled release growth hormone containing microspheres. WO. 1994 94/12158

33. Steber WD, Fishbein R, Cady SM. Compositions for parenteral administration and their use. US Patent 4,837,381 (1989).

34. Blanchard TL, Varner DD, Burns PJ, Everett KA, Brinsko L. Regulation of estrus and ovulation in mares with progesterone and estradiol biodegradable microspheres with or without PGF2. Theriogenology 1992;38:1091-1106.

35. Jasko DJ, Farlin ME, Hutchinson H, Moran DM, Squires EL, Burns PJ. Progesterone and estradiol in biodegradable microspheres for control of estrus and ovulation in mares. Theriogenology 1993;40:465-478.

36. Burns PJ, Tice TR, Mason DW, Love DF, Foss RR, Sarver F, Woods JA, Sissener TR, Heitland AV, Wilhelm K, Farlin ME, Squires EL. Control of estrus and ovulation in mares using progesterone and estradiol biodegradable microspheres in a multicenter clinical trial. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 1994;21:86-88.

37. Burns PJ, Ball BA, Tice TR, Mason DW, Love DF. A preliminary report on the efficacy of biodegradable microspheres for the controlled release of progesterone and estradiol for synchronisation of ovulation in mares. Theriogenology 1990;33:202.

38. Burns PJ, Steiner JV, Sertich PL, Pozar M, Tice TR, Mason D, Love DF. Evaluation of biodegradable microspheres for the controlled release of progesterone and estradiol in an ovulation control program for cycling mares. J Eq Vet Sei 1993;13:521-524.

39. Burns PJ, Tice TR, Mason DW, Love DF, Ferrell T, Gibson J, Dippert K, Squires EL. Evaluation of a new process for preparation of progesterone and estradiol microspheres. An in-vivo pharmacokinetics study. Proc Control Release Soc Conf, Advances in Controlled Delivery. Baltimore, MD. 1996. pp. 133-134.

40. Fleury JJ, Costa-Neto JB, Burns PJ. Regulation of estrus and ovulation in cyclic mares with progesterone and estradiol biodegradable microspheres: Effects of different doses of estradiol. J Eq Vet Sei 1993;13:525-528.

41. Wuthrich P, Ng SY, Fritzinger BK, Roskos KV, Heller J. Pulsatile and delayed release of lysozyme from ointment-like poly(ortho esters). J. Control Release 1992;21:191-200.

42. Göpferich A. Bioerodible implants with programmable drug release. J. Control Release 1997;44:271-281.

43. Miller JA, Beadles ML, Palmer JS, Pickens MO. Methoprene for control of the hornfly (Haematobia irritans): a sustained release bolus formulation for cattle. J Econ Entomol 1977;70:589-591.

44. Miller JA, Beadles ML, Drummond RO. Sustained release bolus formulations containing insect growth regulators for control of livestock pests. US Patent 4,166,107 (1978).

45. Wood IB, Toothill RB, Dietz JC. Sustained release bolus for the prolonged prevention, treatment or control of nematode, acrid and endo-and extoparasitic infestations in animals. US Patent 5,322,692 (1994).

46. Pierce RC, Bowman TP, McDaniel J, Winslow R. Sustained release S-methoprene bolus for control of hornflies. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 1988;15:294-295.

47. Byford RL, Riner JL, Hair JA. A sustained release Oxytetracycline bolus for ruminants. Bovine Pract 1981;15:91-94.

48. Conrad JM, Skinner DS. Controlled sustained delivery of monensin in cattle: the Monensin RDD. J Control Release 1988;9:133-147.

49. Parrott JM, Conrad JM, Basson RP, Pendlum LC. The effect to monensin ruminal delivery device on the performance of cattle grazing pasture. J Anim Sei 1990;68:2614-2621.

50. Davis RC, Gibson JW, Skinner DS, Dearth TE, Harris DC. Rumen delivery device. US Patent 4,649,042 (1985).

51. Kleber JW, Simpson BE. Growth promotant controlled release formulation and method of treatment. EP 0,025,697 (1983).

52. Nevin RS. Copolymer from lactic acid and glycolic acid and process for making the same. EP 0,026,599 (1984).

53. Simpson BE. Device for drug delivery to ruminants. EP 0,062,391 (1982).

54. Laby RH, Lance MA. Controlled release capsule. US Patent 4,687,480 (1987).

55. Simpson BE, Gervais NZ. Sustained release capsule for ruminants. US Patent 4,416,659 (1983).

56. Laby RH. Controlled release compositions for administration of therapeutic agents to ruminants. US Patent 4,671,789 (1985).

57. Laby RH, Lance MA. Controlled release capsule. US Patent 4,687,480 (1987).

58. Shepard MT, Edwards SR. Delivery device US Patent 4,883,484 (1989).

59. Shepard MT. Intra-ruminal device for delivering drugs. US Patent 5,162,116 (1991).

60. Scully MO, Woodling D. Time release bolus. US Patent 5,198,222 (1993).

61. Lowe LB, McArthur T. Sustained release capsule and formulations. US Patent 5,277,912 (1994).

62. Lowe LB, McArthur CJ. Sustained release capsule and formulations. US Patent 5,562,915 (1996).

63. Riner JL, Byford RL, Stratton LG, Hair JA. Influence of density and location on degradation of sustained release boluses given to cattle. Am J Vet Res 1982;43:2028-2030.

64. Byford RL, Riner JL, Hair JA. A sustained release Oxytetracycline bolus for ruminants. Bovine Pract 1981;15:91-94.

65. Laby RH. Controlled release intraruminal devices in animal health and production. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 1987;14:18-19.

66. Cady SM, Steber WD. Controlled delivery of somatotropins. In: Sanders LM, Hendren P, editors. Protein delivery: physical systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1997. pp. 289-317.

67. Aston R, Bomford R, Holder AT. Physiologically active compositions of growth hormone and serum albumin or IgG. US Patent 5,045,312 (1991).

68. Egerton JR, Suhayda D, Eary CH. Prophylaxis of nematode infections in cattle with an indwelling, rumino-reticular ivermectin sustained release bolus. Vet Parasitol 1986;22:67-75.

69. Pope DG, Wilkerson PK, Egerton JR, Conroy J. Oral controlled release delivery of ivermectin in cattle via an osmotic pump. J Pharm Sei 1985;74:1108-1110.

70. Shin M, Mori Y, Nagashima H, Hasegawa Y, Hoshino K. Changes in plasma gonadotropins, ovarian steroids and inhibin concentrations in gilts following progesterone treatment with implantable osmotic pumps. Anim Reprod Sei 1989;20:287-297.

71. Thombre AG, Cardinal JR, Fournier LA. A delivery device containing a poorly water-soluble drug in a hydrophobic medium: ruminal delivery application. J Control Release 1992;18:221-234.

72. Dresback DS. Delivery system. US Patent 4,220,153 (1980).

73. Jones RM. Therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of morantel when administered directly into the rumen of cattle on a continuous basis. Vet Parasitol 1983;12:223-232.

74. Holloway JW. Sustained release delivery system. US Patent 4,381,780 (1983).

75. Bagnall BG, Gyurik RJ. Delayed action assembly. US Patent 4,564,363 (1983).

76. Whitehead DJ, Shepherd MT. Release device. US Patent 4,642,230 (1987).

77. Kwan L, Steber W. Intermittent release dosage form. US Patent 5,110,598 (1992).

78. Kwan L, Steber W. Intermittent release dosage form. US Patent 5,178,874 (1993).

79. Cardinal JR. Intraluminal devices. Adv Drug Del Rev 1997;28:303-322.

80. Cardinal JR. Drug release from matrix devices. In: Kim SW, Anderson JM, editors. Recent advances in drug delivery systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1984. pp. 229-242.

81. Lipper RA, Higuchi WI. Analysis of theoretical behaviour of a proposed zero-order delivery system. J Pharm Sci 1977;66:163-164.

82. Eckenhoff RB. Density element for ruminal delivery device. US Patent 5,206,024 (1993).

83. Cardinal JR, Wilkerson PK, Zingerman JL. Orifice insert for ruminal bolus. US Patent 5,122,128 (1992).

84. Zingerman JL, Cardinal JR, Chern RT, Holste J, Williams JB, Eckenhoff B, Wright JT. The in vitro and in vivo performance of an somotically controlled delivery system-IVOMEC SR Bolusu. J Control Release 1997;47:1-11.

85. Chien YW. Microsealed drug delivery systems: fabrication and performance. Meth Enz 1985; 112:461-470.

86. Duncan R, Seymour LW. Controlled release technologies: a survey of research and commercial applications. London: Elsevier, 1989. pp. 18.

87. Janoff AS, Bolcsak LE, Weiner AL, Tremblay PA, Bergamini MVW, Suddith RL. Composition using salt form of organic acid derivative of alpha tocopherol. US Patent 4,861,580 (1989).

88. Weiner AL, Estis LF, Janoff AS. High integrity liposomes and method of preparation and use. WO. 1989 89/ 05151

89. Drake CF. Controlled release glass. US Patent 4,350,675 (1982).

90. Telfer SB, Zervas G, Knott P. Water soluble glass articles, their manufacture and their use in the treatment of ruminant animals. US Patent 4,482,541 (1984).

91. Alger BF. The application of soluble glass to the production of rumen boluses. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 1987;14:89-90.

92. Drake CF, Tripp M. Rumen bolus. US Patent 4,662,879 (1987).

93. Drake CF. and Arch AJ. Controlled delivery device. US Patent 4,793,997 (1988).

94. Drake CF, Alfred JO. Material dispensers. US Patent 4,851,225 (1989).

95. Allen WM, Sansom BF, Gleed PT, Madison CB, Drake CF. Boluses of controlled release glass for supplementing ruminants with copper. Vet Rec 1984; 115:55-57.

96. Sanders LM, Domb A. A delayed release of macromolecules. US Patent 4,959,217 (1990).

97. Younsik C, Sittner RT, Pitt CG, Donaldson EM, McLean E. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 18 1991;595-596.

98. Casey DJ, Rosati L. US Patent 4,882,168 (1989).

Rathbone and Gurny (edsControlled Release Veterinary Drug Delivery: Biological and Pharmaceutical Considerations © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

0 0

Post a comment