The Snellen chart

This chart is named after a Dutch ophthalmologist (1834-1908). It consists of a series of letters of diminishing size as in Figure 19.1a. Each letter has an overall size five times the thickness of the lines composing the letter. The results of the test are expressed as a fraction, in which the numerator is the testing distance (6 m) and the denominator is the distance at which a normal observer would be able to read the letter. Other test types, which are designed to be applicable to any...

Fluorescein angiography of the fundus

No other single technique has had more impact on retinal investigation than fundus photography with the dye fluorescein. It has contributed to the diagnosis and treatment of chorioretinal diseases, elucidated poorly understood retinal diseases and served as an indispensable research modality. Sodium fluorescein is a yellow-red dye with a molecular weight of 376.67. It is used in 10 or 25 sterile aqueous solution. When injected, usually into the antecubital vein, 80 of it is bound to plasma...

References

Benetos A, Laurent S, Hoeks AP, Boutouyrie PH, Safar ME (1993) Arterial alterations with aging and high blood pressure A noninvasive study of carotid and femoral arteries Arterioscler Thromb 13, 90-7 Benjamin N, Calver A, Collier J, Robinson B, Vallance P, Webb D (1995) Measuring forearm blood flow and interpreting the responses to drugs and mediators Hypertension 25, 918-23 Bernard S, Serusclat A, Targe F, Charriere S, Roth O, Beaune J et al. (2005) Incremental predictive value of carotid...

Insulin Infusion

Figure 5.5 The difference between the counterregulatory responses expected between an insulin bolus (left) and insulin infusion (right). In the presence of continued insulin stimulus, counterreg-ulation can arrest but not correct glucose fall. The depth of the fall will depend upon insulin dose. Note the rebound above baseline on recovery in the left panel. at a dose of 0.1-0.2 mU kg. Sampling for glucose and insulin is done at regular intervals thereafter for 90-120 minutes (Bloom et al....

Info

Amiel BSc, MD, FRCP, RD Lawrence Professor of Diabetic Medicine, Gene and Cell Based Therapy, Diabetes Research Group, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, King's College London School of Medicine, London, UK Henning Beck-Nielsen MD, DMSc, Head of the Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Professor of Endocrinology, University of Southern Denmark, and Head of the Danish PhD School of Molecular Metabolism, Odense, Denmark Ayad Al-Bermani MD, Specialist...

Tracers for the study of triglyceriderich lipoprotein kinetics Chylomicrons

Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles that are formed by the small intestine during fat absorption. The amount of lipid fuel that traverses the circulation in the form of chylomicrons obviously varies with dietary fat consumption. In individuals on high-fat diets, however, it can equal or exceed FFA flux Miles et al. 2004 . The triglyceride transported in chylomicrons is metabolised by LPL, which is widely distributed in tissues but is most abundant in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...