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Pathophysiology:

■ Different causes lead to degranulation of mast cells, which attract inflammatory cells and cause vasodilation and edema in the dermis.

References:

1. Haas N, Toppe E, Henz BM. Microscopic morphology of different types of urticaria. Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:41-46.

2. Sabroe RA, Poon E, Orchard GE, et al. Cutaneous inflammatory cell infiltrate in chronic idiopathic urticaria: comparison of patients with and without anti-FcepsilonRI or anti-IgE autoantibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103(3 Pt 1):484-493.

References:

1. Chartier C, Grosshans E. Erysipelas. Int J Dermatol 1990; 29: 459-467.

2. Guberman D, Gilead LT, Zlotogorski A, Schamroth J. Bullous erysipelas: a retrospective study of 26 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41:733-737.

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