the reticular dermis


■ Caused by continued exposure to cold, the exact mechanism being opaque

■ Sometimes presenting as a variant of lupus erythemato-sus (i.e., Chilblain lupus)


■ Unknown, but figurate erythema may represent a pattern encountered in a variety of conditions rather than being a distinctive disease.


1. Ackerman AB, Boer A, Bennin B, Gottlieb GJ. Histologic Diagnosis of Inflammatory Skin Diseases. 3rd ed. New York: Ardor Scribendi, 2005.

2. Clark WH, Mihm MC, Reed RJ, Ainsworth AM. The lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin. The lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin. Hum Pathol 1974; 5:25.

3. White JW Jr. Gyrate erythema. Dermatol Clin 1985; 3(1): 129-139.

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