the reticular dermis
■ Caused by continued exposure to cold, the exact mechanism being opaque
■ Sometimes presenting as a variant of lupus erythemato-sus (i.e., Chilblain lupus)
■ Unknown, but figurate erythema may represent a pattern encountered in a variety of conditions rather than being a distinctive disease.
1. Ackerman AB, Boer A, Bennin B, Gottlieb GJ. Histologic Diagnosis of Inflammatory Skin Diseases. 3rd ed. New York: Ardor Scribendi, 2005.
2. Clark WH, Mihm MC, Reed RJ, Ainsworth AM. The lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin. The lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin. Hum Pathol 1974; 5:25.
3. White JW Jr. Gyrate erythema. Dermatol Clin 1985; 3(1): 129-139.
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