CD137 Ligand Activities on T Cells

Expression of CD137 ligand protein could either not be detected on primary T cells, or only at low levels. But CD137 ligand is present on human and murine T cell lines (Table 3.2). It may be that CD137 ligand is expressed on primary T cells at such low levels that detection by commonly used detection methods such as flow cytometry is difficult. T cell lines may acquire stronger CD137 ligand expression during the transformation process. The activities of CD137 ligand on T cells stand in contrast...

Apoptosis of T Lymphocytes

Agonistic anti-CD137 mAb treatment inhibited the function of pathogenic CD4+ T cells in various autoimmune disease models (Seo etal., 2004 Shao etal., 2005 Sun et al., 2002b). Such treatment could also reduce CD4+ T cell number in certain models (Kim et al., 2005 Sun et al., 2002a, 2002b). In lpr mice, CD137 engagement with anti-CD137 resulted in the diminishment of CD4+ T cell number (Sun et al., 2002a). Through tracking antigen-specific T cell response with D011.10 TCR transgenic mice, which...

CD137 Acting in Synergy with Cytokines and Other Costimulatory Molecules

Interleukin-12 as a recombinant protein has been one of the most promising anti-cancer agents arising from preclinical models. Unfortunately an underestimated maximal tolerated dose led to serious adverse effects in a phase II clinical trial that halted development. However systemic toxicity and local efficacy made IL-12 an excellent candidate for local gene therapy Colombo and Trinchieri, 2002 Murphy et al., 2005 . Tumor cell gene transfer of IL-12 has remarkable antitumor effects in mouse...