Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-up For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. More here...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Body Art and Cosmetics

Women, Cloth, and Society in Early Times (New York Norton, 1994). Chandra, Moti, Costumes, Textiles, Cosmetics and Coiffure in Ancient and Medieval India (Delhi Oriental Publishers, Indian Archaeological Society, 1973). Ebin, Victoria, The Body Decorated (London Thames & Hudson, 1979). Sagarin, Edward (ed.), Cosmetics, Science and Technology (New York Interscience, 1957).

Toolkits for Genetic Testing

In this chapter, we shall see how these differences in the provision of health care, coupled with different approaches to university-industry relationships and specifically, the emergence of the biotechnology industry, have led to very different histories of genetic medicine in the two countries. Although medical genetics has very similar origins in the United States and Britain, with early institutionalization of specialized genetics clinics in hospitals and controversial eugenics movements that sought to use hereditary information to control the genetic makeup and health of future populations, their histories began to diverge in the 1960s as the field began to grow beyond these origins. Different philosophies of health care and approaches to the commercialization of research findings led genetic medicine in different directions in the two countries and eventually, created very different toolkits to be employed in the development of BRCA testing.

Pharmacokinetics and Uses

Pharmacokinetics Collectively known as para-hydroxybenzoic acids, methylparaben, and propylparaben often used in synergistic combination as antimicrobials and preservatives. Uses The second most common preservatives in cosmetics, next to water. Allergy reproductive hepatic toxicities Allergy High incidence of allergic reactions to food, drugs, and cosmetics containing less than 0.1 (1 mg mL) parabens. Reproductive Significant spermicidal activity, which supports use in vaginal contraceptive creams.

The Use of difflog PN I and diffpKa to Calculate the Lipophilicity of Ion Pairs in nOctanol Water

Generally speaking, the change in lipophilicity of a molecule when it ionizes is determined by its structure in the near vicinity of the charge center. This simplifies the prediction process since, whatever the size or makeup of the remainder of the molecule, if important features around the charge center do not change, the difference between log PN and log PI will be about the same. Titrations in n-octanol have proven to be an ideal method for identifying these important features and quantifying their influence. Four primary factors affecting log PI 25 are illustrated in Sections using data from Table 3. The titration method is based on eqns 9 and 14 . A particular advantage for current purposes is that, when looking at differences between diff(pK' ' ) values, the electrode correction factors cancel out, giving values sensitive to a few hundredths of a pKa or log P unit. A distinctive feature of this method is that it is insensitive to the magnitude of log P so...

Shaping Customised Implant by Using Rapid Prototype Biomodel

Models can be also used to preoperatively shape custom craniofacial implants of relatively low complexity. Such implants are made in acrylic or titanium for a range of conditions including craniotomy defects, tumour resections, facial trauma, and cosmetics. A case that exemplified the use of models in restorative maxillofacial surgery was that of a man who had sustained severe injuries to his lower face. The patient had already undergone several major procedures to reconstruct his mandible that had failed. Treated at Sydney's Westmead hospital, he was scanned by CT. The data was used to generate a model of his mandible. The model displayed the midline defect with both rami missing and the remains of the body deformed by previous surgery and bone grafting. The model was used firstly to preoperatively shape a titanium plate to fit the defect and restore the patient's occlusive bite. The titanium was implanted and fastened to the remaining ends of the mandible whilst a vascularised...

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

Singlet oxygen is a particularly damaging molecule with a short half life of i seconds in water. It can react with a variety of biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids.23,24 UVA-irradiation generates singlet oxygen by energy transfer from a photosensitizer molecule to ground-state oxygen. In addition to endogenous photosensitizers, the skin has access to an increasing number of exogenous photosensitizers in cosmetics, medications, drugs, plants, and industrial emissions. Singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of photodermatologic disorders which include drug-induced phototoxicity, porphyrias, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis.25-28 ROS, which have increased upon UV-irradiation, cause extensive damage to DNA, as demonstrated by tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, in addition to proteins and lipids with genotoxic and mutagenic effects. These ROS induced alterations are variations of a common theme involved in aging,...

Plant Biotechnology Is Centuries

By the first decade of the twentieth century, plant scientists had recognized the relationship between plant breeding and the inheritance of characteristics in succeeding plant generations. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology in 1973, the ability to tailor the genetic makeup of plants became possible. Conventional plant breeding has subsequently given way to the sophisticated techniques of genetic manipulation.

The Explanatory Incompleteness Objection

The Gory Details Argument Antireductionists have argued that knowledge of the molecular makeup of genes does not enhance our understanding of their classical Mende-lian behavior. For example, Philip Kitcher (1984), in his brilliant essay which marks the culmination of the antireductionist literature, argues that the assortment of genes is best understood at the cytological level ''The distribution of genes to gametes is to be explained, not by rehearsing the gory details of the reshuffling of the molecules, but through the observation that chromosomes are aligned in pairs just prior to the mei-otic division, and that one chromosome from each matched pair is transmitted to each gamete'' (Kitcher 1984, p. 370). He goes on to argue that the cytological pattern of explanation is objectively preferable because it can uniformly account for a wide range of cases that would look heterogeneous from a molecular perspective. The prospects for developing the splintering objection appear dim. The...

Scientific Foundations

Companies manufacture cosmetics for different skin types. Skin type is determined by an individual's cellular activity. People with oily skin, for instance, have overactive oil-producing cells. Cleansers for oily skin contain substances that act as oil solvents and are effective at cleaning the pores of the skin. Moisturizers, designed to reduce skin dryness, typically use skin-friendly substances, such as milk. The skin cells absorb the active ingredient of the product to produce the softening effects. Certain chemical peels used as anti-wrinkle agents effectively remove the upper dead cell layers of the skin, thereby leaving it smooth and erasing fine lines. Most cosmetics work in similar ways, either by being absorbed by skin cells or by removing dead skin cells.

Building better trees

A quick way of finding out whether particular plants have any of the desirable genes wanted for crossbreeding is to use gene probes. This technique can be used to monitor the genetic makeup of hybrid seeds produced in orchards and track the degree of inbreeding. Such long-term research on gene expression and genetic transformation is making genetic engineering and cloning almost routine in some parts of the forest industry.

Flower Power and Multiculturalism

Another hidden link with older radicals was through pure food movements, and the campaign for 'real' and organic foods. Alternative food reform was accompanied by 'purist' cookery using authentic recipes and ingredients from the world's peasant cuisines (also peasant or traditional beauty receipts), and took over the marketing of naturopathic macrobiotic foods in a surge of small 'health food' producers and cooperative outlets selling yoghurt, muesli, lentils, wholemeal bread, brown rice, organic vegetables, and natural cosmetics older naturopathic outlets were often saved from extinction.38 Starting in the 1980s, ethnic cuisines, organic products, and an

The Affected Individual

A second kind of positive effect occurs when an affected individual is given information about his or her genetic makeup, permitting an alteration in lifestyle and life choices that can extend and enhance the quality of life. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases such as emphysema, asthma, and bronchitis are the eleventh leading cause of years of potential life lost in the United States. It is fairly well established that genetic factors play an important role in determining age at onset of these diseases and their severity. Individuals who are homozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency are at greater risk for these lung diseases. That risk is greatly exacerbated by smoking, or by being in an environment with high levels of dust, welding fumes, and a number of other substances. Smoking is regarded as a dominant factor, and contributes as much as 50 percent to the known excess risk, although the interaction of smoking with other factors is not well understood.

Design Considerations for Libraries of all Sizes and Types

When designing a combinatorial or parallel library, it is essential to consider the intended use of the library. The library size and makeup of a general screening library are different from that of a target family library, which is, in turn, different from a library intended for a single target or for optimization of a lead. Clearly, the largest library type is the general screening or corporate deck enhancement library. These are most likely to be based on some definition of molecular diversity, but the nature of that diversity will be dependent on whether the library centers on a single scaffold or around a diverse set of scaffolds. The former is mostly likely to be a medium-sized library on the order of 1000-2000 compounds, whereas the latter may range in the low tens of thousands. Similarly, a target family library is likely to be diverse but focused around a set of so-called privileged substructures or around a set of pharmacophores. Typically, these libraries are designed to be...

In Silico Prediction of Skin Sensitization

Despite the fact that none of these assays is considered high throughput, regulatory requirements for occupational health and safety, as well as the need to demonstrate consumer safety for personal products and cosmetics, has meant that many chemicals have been tested in one or more of these experimental assays. In addition, strong public and political opinion on the use of laboratory animals for testing of personal products and cosmetics has put immense pressure on these industries to develop and adopt alternative methods for identifying skin sensitizers. This pressure has resulted in the release into the public domain of large quantities of data that were traditionally held in the internal archives of private corporations. This release of data along with public pressure was the primary driving force for the development of in silico models for the prediction of ACD.

The Art of Homeopathy

The clinical practice of homeopathy is founded on empirical principles, primarily that substances capable of causing physical and psychologic disorders can be used to remedy similar illnesses. The growth and evolution of homeopathy is based on evidence of verifiable cures using these proven medicines. It is not, as is often thought, the degree of dilution that makes medicines homeopathic, but the similarity (homeo) of the disease or suffering (pathos) to the pathogenic affects of the medicine. Importantly, their similarity must encompass the basis of the disorder, rather than just immediate symptoms. Details of the patient's physical, emotional, and psychologic characteristics, as well as any factors or circumstances that ameliorate, aggravate, or modify the condition, are matched with the medicine. The concordance between the particular phenomenologically descriptive picture of the given condition and the remedy enable the treatment to be highly personal and constitutionally...

Summary and Conclusion

In recent years, a growing number of physiological and biological roles have been ascribed to hyaluronan in addition to is role as an essential structural component of the ECM. Its rheological properties have led to an increasing number of applications for hyaluronan in the pharmaceutical industry. Hyaluronan preparations from different biological sources are finding applications in ophthalmology, cosmetics and drug delivery. The chemical modification of hyaluronan to alter its physical properties has also led to important applications

What Do Kidneys Do and What Happens When They Fail

Picture Kidneys Labeled

By these multiple mechanisms the kidneys achieve their remarkable regulatory capacity. It is very important to recognize that the kidneys' main function is not to excrete wastes instead, they play a very important role in keeping what is called extracellular fluid constant in its makeup. Extracellular fluid is the medium in which the millions of cells that make up our bodies are bathed. Blood plasma is part of the extracellular fluid, and it circulates throughout the body by the pumping of the heart. The kidneys keep constant the composition of the extracellular fluid, namely its content of salts, acid, nutrients, and many other constituents. The

Barnett Foster 23 F0r8t0n Street Shepherdess Walk

The term 'soft drink' applies to beverages containing flavourings and or fruit juices together with other constituents of technological or nutritional value designed to enhance the appearance and stability of the product and to ensure its organoleptic properties remain intact during a reasonable shelf life. These factors are taken into consideration in all development work, and in order to meet current stringent quality and legislative controls a new beverage is subjected to extensive trials to assess the suitability and performance of all components in its makeup. It becomes essential to arrive at the correct ingredient formulation to achieve a reproducible product.

Latest Update About The Linalool To Kill Insect

Both limonene and linalool were deemed GRAS (generally regarded as safe) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1965, and they are used extensively at low concentrations as flavorings and scents in foods, cosmetics, soaps, and perfumes. They were considered safe for these uses because they are very low in acute oral and dermal toxicity to mammals (Table 4.1). At high concentrations, however, limonene and linalool injure mammals, and their chronic toxicity has been called into question. When applied topically, limonene is irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes it acts as a vasodilator and skin sensitizer. It has been shown to promote tumor formation in mice (Roe and Field 1965), and Coats (1994) noted other chronic effects.

Ancient Roman Cosmetic Unearthed

Although cosmetics are used widely, there are growing safety concerns. Many cosmetics, especially those that contain chemicals, are known to cause various side effects. Some cosmetics may also run a high risk of bacterial contamination. Consequently, countries have formulated laws governing the sale and monitoring of cosmetics. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has limited regulatory control of cosmetics sold in the United States. The FDA has no premarket approval authority and does not do premarket testing on cosmetics, but may take action if a cosmetic product is adulterated or misbranded in a way that adversely affects consumers. In the United States cosmetics manufacturers must meet certain safety guidelines before their products can be sold to consumers, but the firms themselves are ultimately responsible for the ingredients in and safety of their products. Biotechnology has contributed to the development of cosmetics that not only beautify but that also have a...

Cycloinulohexaose Derivatives

Cycloinulohexaose can be derivatized to additional structures of interest (Figure 5.8), e.g., fructo-sylated branched cyclic inulooligosaccharides (Kushibe and Morimoto, 1994), or cross-linked to give a solid electrolyte (Shimofusachi, 1998). When esterified to fatty, benzoic, or other acids, cycloinulohexaose can potentially be used as an oily base, oily gelation agent, or film-forming agent for cosmetics (Shimizu and Suzuki, 1996). Modification of cycloinulohexaose via sulfony-lation of the primary hydroxyl with 2-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride yields three possible isomers (30 to 32) (Atsumi et al., 1994). Subsequent treatment with thiophenol Cs2CO3 yields the sulfite of each isomer (33 to 35). Cycloinulohexaose may also be permethylated, peracetylated, or per-benzoylated (Takai et al., 1994).

Physiological Regulation

Of the total energy expenditure for DIT, about one-third is ascribable to stimulation of BAT or to futile cycles to produce extra heat. Thus, DIT consists of adaptive thermogenesis together with thermogenesis induced by cold exposure. This adaptive thermogenesis, which responds to temperature and diet, is highly variable and is influenced by genetic makeup. It is regulated by brain activity throughout the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), an important efferent pathway.

Imaging Technologies And Methods

MRI can distinguish atherosclerotic plaque components based upon physical and chemical properties such as water content, molecular motion, energy and physical state, diffusion, motion as well as chemical makeup and concentration (27). The acquisition times for MRI scans have been significantly reduced thanks to dedicated pulse sequences that facilitate multi-slice imaging (20,21,23,28-30). Furthermore, black-blood MRI methods allow for accurate imaging of the arterial wall without blood-related or blood-flow artifacts (31-33).

Variability in Micronutrient Requirements among Individuais

Put simply, each person has unique nutritional requirements. Depending on one's individual genetic makeup, striking variability can exist in the body's biochemistry. A nutrient intake sufficient for one person may be inadequate for another. For example, 2 mg day of vitamin B6 is adequate for good health in most people, yet some individuals with inherited defects in vitamin B6 metabolism need up to 30 to 100 times this amount.25 The absorption and daily requirement for calcium can vary four- to fivefold among healthy middle-aged women.26 Normal plasma concentrations for 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (the activated form of the vitamin) vary between 15 and 45 pg ml in healthy adults.9 In the 10 of the population who are heterozygous for the hemochromatosis gene (see pp. 68), dietary iron intakes that normally maintain health may be toxic in the long-term.27

External Eye and Lids

Aligned against the globe and that there are no ingrowing lashes. Early basal cell carcinomas (also known as rodent ulcers) on eyelid skin can easily be missed, especially if obscured by cosmetics. The presence of ptosis should be noted and the ocular movements assessed by asking the patient to follow a finger upwards, downwards and to each side. Palpation of the skin around the eyes can reveal an orbital tumour or swollen lacrimal sac. Palpation with the end of a glass rod is sometimes useful to find points of tenderness when the lid is diffusely swollen. Such tenderness can indicate a primary infection of a lash root or the lacrimal sac. Both surfaces of the eyelids should be examined. The inside of the lower lid can easily be inspected by pulling down the skin of the lid with the index finger. The upper lid can be everted by asking the patient to look down, grasping the lashes gently between finger and thumb, and rolling the lid margins upwards and forwards over a cotton-wool bud...

Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

Voice recognition uses the characteristics of a person's voice such as tempo, frequency, pitch, and tone. Gait analyzes the walking style of a person. Typing patterns measure the keystroke style of a person including the amount of time taken between typed words. Signatures are used because each person signs his her name in a distinct way. DNA analyzes an individual's genetic makeup.


People want to change the natural into the useful unnatural, or into the improved man-made or human made. To add value is to profit. So, from the beginning, transformation was essential, whether in the making ofmetals and alloys, in medicinal preparations, in cooking, in dyeing and coloring, in tanning leather, or in the cosmetics. Reaction is fundamentally bringing about transformation. A directed reaction, which is a specific controlled reaction, can also be termed molecular engineering. Today, when a chemist thinks of a ''reaction, he or she sees both the macroscopic transformation as of old and the microscopic molecular change.

The Cosmetic Trades

All these imperial-sized chunks of land carved out by local dynasties were centres of cosmetic excellence, with fragile trading links. A strong dynasty was a definite commercial asset. Dotted about the landscape in strategic positions, massive palaces and temples towered over the rest of the population, and drove the luxury economy. Beauty was a powerful display of rank order and it was just as true in c.3000 bce as it was to the Roman author Herodotus later 'that the countries which lie on the circumference of the inhabited world produce the things which we believe to be most rare and beautiful'.5 If a thing was rare and beautiful, the kings, queens, and chieftains wanted it (which created a trade) and then so did everybody else (which created an industry). Palaces and temples not only created demand, but also refashioned raw materials in their own farms or workshops, turning themselves into middlemen and 'adding value' to local resources or cheap imports. At Pylos (c.1550-1200 bce)...

Cosmetic Receipts

They keep off death from themselves', as one Vedic author put it.12 A more comprehensive view of the connection between cosmetics and health care can be obtained from some of the very earliest medical texts. Many of these simply recorded a folkloric pharmacology of herbal, animal, and mineral 'receipts' (ingredients) for the treatment of various conditions, that continued to be recycled for centuries to come ancient Indian cosmetic receipts in particular were preserved uninterruptedly from 600 bce to ad 1600 and onwards to the present day. All these early receipt texts show an overwhelming medical interest in the care of the body surfaces. Egyptian cosmetic receipts appear in medical papyri next to skin salves, eye salves, and tooth remedies similarly in the early Anglo-Saxon leech books. In the Indian herbals, cosmetic receipts for hair dyes, hair promoters, hair oils, depilatories, and hair-disentangling cream jostle with recipes for the treatment of grey hair, dandruff, lice, and...

Public Women

We have reconstructed a bare outline of the ancient world's large cosmetics industry, some of its social ideologies, and most of its accoutrements all widely dispersed, and so close to the daily lives of so many people. But there is one other story which has been running subliminally throughout the position of women at the centre of all this activity.


Although there was no difference between the group that only had massage with oil and the group that had massage plus hypnotherapy, there was less improvement in the group that only had hypnotherapy. Several reasons may explain this, particularly because the groups that accepted massage may not have the same psychological makeup as the group that chose not to be massaged. The apparent difference between the

The Trotula Corpus

It has long been thought that Trotula was a woman physician working in Salerno who wrote a famous book on cosmetics but recent detective work has proved that this was a myth perpetuated in the 1544 edition by a humanist doctor, Georg Kraut. Like so many medieval popular works, the corpus of work known as The Trotula was compiled by many different hands. During the twelfth century in Salerno two scholarly tracts, Treatise on the Diseases of Women and On the Conditions of Women, were bound together with a more practical and commercial compilation called Treatments for Women and what may have been a local Salernitan classic, a detailed tract called Cosmetics for Women. Just to clear up a confusion which has long existed, until 1544 the first two were called Trotula Major and the second two, Trotula Minor but both were pillaged and adapted in various ways, with a surge of editions in the fourteenth century, including pocket-sized vernacular translations into almost all European languages....


Esters of polysaccharides such as inulin have a diverse range of applications depending upon the chain length of the carbohydrate portion and the esterified component. Inulin esters (Figure 5.5) can be formed by reaction with acid chlorides or with anhydrides of certain carboxylic acids in which the introduced alkyl chain is typically from C12 to C22 (3) altering the compound's surface tension. The products produced can be varied by altering the length of the alkyl chain or degree of substitution, giving a diverse range of properties. Those with short chain lengths and low degrees of substitution decrease surface tension and may be used as nonionic surfactants, binders in paints, and softeners. With higher degrees of substitution they can be used as plasticizers (Bognolo, 1997). With longer alkyl chains, inulin esters are useful as textile sizing agents, film and fiber thickeners, and polymeric surfactants in detergents or emulsifiers in cosmetics (Ehrhardt et al., 1997 Rogge and...

In Vivo Studies

Nanoparticle use in cosmetics (especially sunscreen) is widespread, with the primary materials being nanoscale TiO2 and ZnO. The primary barrier to absorption through the skin is physical the outer layer of the epidermis, which contains mostly dead skin cells. There is less information about dermal toxicity nanoparticles than about other types, and specific skin conditions may affect greatly the penetration of nanoparticles however, the primary toxic mechanism appears to be generation of ROS. Whether the nanoparticles penetrate the epidermis depends on a number of factors. Movement of the skin or damaged skin can allow the penetration of microscale beads to the dermis and may allow movement to regional lymph nodes, where chemical reactions with proteins can affect the autoimmune system 96,97 . There is evidence that submicron particles penetrate the skin shallowly and may penetrate more deeply via hair follicles 98,99 . Smaller particles may penetrate far...

Select bibliography

The chapter notes give the full bibliography, and detailed recommendations for further reading. This is a small selection of basic texts, divided into broad themes for easy use methodology, primary sources, bio-physicality, body-art and cosmetics, purity and asceticism, hot and cold bathing, medical history, and material culture and domestic technology.

Inulin Ethers

Inulin etherification products have utility in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals as carriers for water-insoluble substances or to stabilize aqueous solutions of compounds with low water solubility. They may also be used as emulsifiers or as an additive in textiles and paper and as softeners of thermoplastic polymers (Kunz and Begli, 1995).


Over the years, it has been proposed that many toxins may cause multiple sclerosis (MS) or worsen its symptoms. Recent reports have associated MS with aspartame use and mercury from dental amalgam, both of which are discussed elsewhere in this book. It also has been claimed that MS is provoked by cosmetics or by chemicals in the environment in the form of pollution, aerosol sprays, low levels of formaldehyde, and fumes from solvents. In food, it has been claimed that additives and low levels of residual fertilizers and pesticides may be important. On the basis of concerns about toxic causes for MS and other diseases, an entire field known as clinical ecology has emerged.

The Salerno Regimen

Salerno was originally a Roman coastal health resort and spa, situated 35 miles south-east of Naples down the coast from Baiae. In 847 Salerno became the port capital of a new Lombard principality, and the first Benedictine medical monks arrived. Over 300 years nine monasteries were established, and Salerno's three Roman aqueducts were rebuilt, serving a series of public fountains, the old public bathhouses, and private customers en route, some with their own private bathhouses including the nunnery of San Giorgio, and the bathhouse of the male monastery of Santa Sofia, a large establishment with furnaces and bronze cauldrons and a cold pool, open to all monks, nuns, and visiting clergy that might need them.14 Salerno became renowned for its healing facilities, and, being a port town, treated many damaged, health-seeking travellers, traders, and passing soldiers. By the twelfth century the medical School of Salerno had reached a peak of literary activity, finding and translating into...


The underlying pathophysiology of all neurodegenerative diseases is the dysfunction and ultimate death of neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive in nature with a worsening of clinical symptoms over time. The neuronal loss in different neurodegenerative diseases is asynchronous with symptoms progressing as a result of a cumulative loss of the neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitters essential to signal propagation through the particular brain circuitry associated with a given disease. Different disease phenotypes occur with neuron loss depending on the neuronal population affected, the insult initiating the cell death cascade, and the genetic makeup of the individual. For example, memory or coordinated movement is not the function of a single specific neuronal population or brain region but involves several, such that the loss of one key element can perturb neurotransmitter homeostasis (excitatory versus inhibitory), thus affecting the final integrated output of the...

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