In the early 1960s chronic hemodialyses were long procedures, usually 20-40 h/week on standard Kiil dia-lyzers in-center  or 8-10 h three times weekly at home . The first trials of shorter dialysis duration were at-
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Zbylut J. Twardowski, MD
Dialysis Clinic, Inc.
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tempted in the late 1960s. Schupak and Merrill  indicated that shorter dialysis sessions (total duration of 1216 h/week with the use of coil dialyzers) achieved biochemical control similar to that achieved on Kiil dialyzers with longer dialysis durations.
The tendency to shorten dialysis duration continued in the 1970s. The major incentive was the need of more intensive utilization of dialysis centers because the number of candidates for chronic dialysis markedly exceeded the availability of treatment facilities [8, 9]. In the late 1970s, an increasing number of centers in Europe and in the US followed this trend. Short dialysis had a tremendous appeal to the patients once they were told that the results were not worse than those with long dialysis.
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