General Characteristics of CS

To discuss methods of CS isolation efficiently, a brief overview of CS structure needs to be given, since the various techniques take advantage of CS structure. CS consists of hexosamine D-galactosamine and hexuronic acid D-glucuronic acid units that are arranged in alternating unbranched sequence and carry sulfate substituents in various positions. The other sulfated GAG species are composed of dermatan sulfate DS , heparan sulfate HS , heparin, and keratan sulfate Conrad, 1998 Coombe and...

CsCl Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation

Glycosaminoglycan GAG chains give PGs a high-buoyant density, and therefore, CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation is useful to separate PGs from many other proteins. An adequate initial concentration of CsCl varies depending on the buoyant density of each PG. The following is an example of separating soluble CSPGs obtained from a rat brain Fig. 2 Oohira et al., 1988 . 1. Add CsCl 0.55 g ml to the sample in 1 M guanidine-HCl solution Section V.A , and invert several times to dissolve CsCl...

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4S Chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferaseJ Chondroitin 4-sulfate 6-0-sulfotransferasel gt ic lt c 6S Galactosaminyl uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase FIGURE 4 GalAG biosynthesis chain polymerization and chain modification. A Chain polymerization is mediated by a variety of enzymes Table III that have alternating GlcA transferase II and GalNAc transferase II activities. B Modification of the polymer chain. GalAG biosynthesis ensues with a series of modification reactions that may alter the sulfation pattern...