Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the brain has occurred consistently as an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness in around 0.5% of AIDS patients . A population-based study in Italy during the period 1985-1994 found that 22 out of 40 (55%) cases of brain NHL at age 15-49 years occurred in people with AIDS, giving a standardized incidence ratio of over 2,000 . In an analysis of cancer incidence among nearly 48,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive people from North America, Europe, and Australia, the adjusted annual incidence of cerebral NHL fell significantly from 1.7 per 1,000 during the period 1992-1996, to 0.7 per 1,000 during the years 1997-1999, indicating a substantial reduction in risk with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (International Collaboration on HIV and Cancer 2000) .
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