Because beginning with an inherited defect in function and working toward identification of a gene is even today a time-consuming task, more and more scientists are now working the other way: they take a gene with a known sequence but unknown function and deduce its role. Since we know the complete genome of a number of species, we can sit at a computer and identify genes that look interesting—for example, because their sequence is similar to a gene of known function. The gene of interest can be mutated and reinserted into cells or organisms, and the cells or organisms tested for any altered function. This approach is called reverse genetics.
target sequence ■
step 1 heat to 90°C to separate strands step 1 heat to 90°C to separate strands
add | oligonucleotide primers '
step 2 cool to 60°C primers anneal to their complementary sequences
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