Figure 9.2. The genetic code and the corresponding amino acid side chains, with special properties noted. Hydrophilic side chains are shown in green, hydrophobic side chains in black.

honorary amino acid status. Because the side chain (which is hydrophobic) is connected to the nitrogen atom and therefore to the peptide bond, including proline in the polypeptide chain introduces a kink.

How is it that amino acids with hydrophobic side chains are present in solution in the cytosol and can be picked up by their respective tRNAs? The answer is simple: as free amino acids, they all bear two charges, a positive charge on the amino group and a negative

Asp D Aspartate

Glu E Glutamate

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