Contents

PREFACE, xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, xvii

INSTRUCTOR NOTES, xix

H 1 CELLS AND TISSUES, 1

Principles of Microscopy, 2 The Light Microscope, 3 The Electron Microscope, 8 The Scanning Electron Microscope, 9 Only Two Types of Cell, 9

Special Properties of Plant Cells, 11 Viruses, 11

Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, 12 Cell Specialization, 12 Epithelia, 12 Connective Tissue, 13 Nervous Tissue, 13 Muscle, 14 Plants, 15 Summary, 16 Review Questions, 16 Answers to Review Questions, 17

H 2 FROM WATER TO DNA: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE, 19

The Chemical Bond: Sharing

Electrons, 19 Interactions with Water: Solutions, 21 Ionic Compounds Will Dissolve Only in

Polar Solvents, 21 Acids Are Molecules That Give H+ to Water, 21

Bases Are Molecules That Take H+ from

Water, 25 Isoelectric Point, 25 A Hydrogen Bond Forms When a Hydrogen Atom Is Shared, 25 Biological Macromolecules, 27 Carbohydrates: Candy and Canes, 27 An Assortment of Sweets, 27 Disaccharides, 28 Out of the Sweet Comes Forth

Strength, 30 Modified Sugars, 31 Nucleosides, Phosphate, and

Nucleotides, 35 Amino Acids, Polypeptides, and Proteins, 37 Lipids, 39 Hydrolysis, 44 Summary, 46 Further Reading, 47 Review Questions, 47 Answers to Review Questions, 48

H 3 MEMBRANESAND ORGANELLES, 51

Basic Properties of Cell Membranes, 51 Straight Through the Membrane:

Diffusion Through the Bilayer, 53 Beyond the Cell Membrane:

The Extracellular Matrix, 53 Cell Junctions, 54 Organelles Bounded by Double-Membrane Envelopes, 56 The Nucleus, 56

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts, 58

Organelles Bounded by Single-Membrane Envelopes, 58 Peroxisomes, 59 Endoplasmic Reticulum, 60 Golgi Apparatus, 60 Lysosomes, 61 Summary, 61 Review Questions, 62 Answers to Review Questions, 63

H 4 DNA STRUCTURE AND THE GENETIC CODE, 65

Introduction, 65

The Structure of DNA, 65

The DNA Molecule Is a Double Helix, 68 The Two DNA Chains Are

Complementary, 69 Different Forms of DNA, 71 DNA as the Genetic Material, 71 Packaging of DNA Molecules into Chromosomes, 71

Eukaryotic Chromosomes and Chromatin

Structure, 71 Prokaryotic Chromosomes, 73 Plasmids, 74 Viruses, 74 The Genetic Code, 75

Amino Acid Names Are Abbreviated, 79 The Code Is Degenerate But

Unambiguous, 79 Start and Stop Codons and the Reading

Frame, 79 The Code Is Nearly Universal, 80 Missense Mutations, 80 Summary, 81 Further Reading, 84 Review Questions, 84 Answers to Review Questions, 85

H 5 DNA AS A DATA STORAGE MEDIUM, 87

Introduction, 87

DNA Replication, 87

The DNA Replication Fork, 88 Proteins Open up the DNA Double Helix During Replication, 88 DnaA Protein, 88 DnaB and DnaC Proteins, 90 Single-Strand Binding Proteins, 90 Biochemistry of DNA Replication, 90 DNA Synthesis Requires an RNA

Primer, 90 RNA Primers Are Removed, 92 The Self-Correcting DNA Polymerase, 92 DNA Repair, 94

Spontaneous and Chemically Induced

Base Changes, 94 Repair Processes, 94 Gene Structure and Organization in Eukaryotes, 98

Introns and Exons—Additional

Complexity in Eukaryotic Genes, 98 The Major Classes of Eukaryotic DNA, 99 Gene Nomenclature, 101 Summary, 101 Further Reading, 102 Review Questions, 102 Answers to Review Questions, 103

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