A large number of investigations have revealed limitless functional contributions of glycosaminoglycans, the most characteristic carbohydrates, to ocular systems. Here, we focus on the roles of glycosaminoglycans in ocular pathogenic conditions and the clinical applications of glycosaminoglycans for eye diseases, and attempt to review them for both health professionals and general readers. We deal with macular corneal dystrophy, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment/pro-liferative vitreoretinopathy, myopia, thyroid eye disease, and pseudoexfoliation syndrome in the eye disease section, and heparin, hyaluronan, and chondroitin sulfate in the clinical application section. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the eye in cross section indicating each ocular component. The candidate glycosaminoglycans involved in the ocular components of each eye disease described in this chapter are summarized in both the legend for Fig. 1 and Table 1.

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