A rapidly emerging method for the large-scale synthesis of complex carbohydrates is the use of metabolically engineered microorganisms. When using whole cells to produce oligosaccharides, there is no need to isolate enzymes and biotransformations can be carried out with inexpensive precursors (25). Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. developed a system for large-scale synthesis of oligosaccharides by coupling multiple metabolically engineered bacteria (63,116-118). In addition, Wang et al. have developed the "superbug" technology utilizing single recombinant bacteria carrying one engineered recombinant plasmid. Samain et al. have also investigated in vivo synthesis of oligosaccharides in recombinant microorganisms (119,120).
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