Glycosaminoglycans in Eye Diseases A Macular Corneal Dystrophy

Macular corneal dystrophy is a rare dystrophy that is characterized by abnormal deposits in the corneal stroma, keratocytes, Descemet's membrane, and Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the eye in horizontal section indicating each ocular component. a, corneal epithelium b, keratocyte c, corneal endothelium d, aqueous humor e, conjunctiva f, sclera g, trabecular meshwork h, iris i, lens j, ciliary zonule and body k, vitreous l, retina m, interphotoreceptor matrix n, retinal pigment epithelium o,...

Retinal Detachment Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

Retinal detachment is a condition in which fluid exists in the subretinal space and causes separation of the neural retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is the proliferation of avascular fibrocellular retinal membranes associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, a retina detached as a result of a retinal break or tear, which causes severe damage to the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Contact between the retinal pigment...

Reduction of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

Asaria et al. reported a significant reduction in the incidence of postoperative pro-liferative vitreoretinopathy in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin therapy and in the reoperation rate resulting from proliferative vitreoretinopathy (100). However, Charteris et al. reported that a combined perioperative infusion of 5-fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin did not significantly increase the success rate of vitreoretinal surgery for established...

Thyroid Eye Disease

Thyroid eye disease is an immunological disorder that affects the orbital muscles and fat. Hyperthyroidism is observed with orbitopathy at some point in most patients, although the two are commonly synchronous. Histological examination of the retroocular connective tissues in thyroid eye disease reveals lymphocytic infiltration and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans produced locally by fibro-blasts, which contribute to the pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy. Effective parameters involving...

Clinical Evidence

The use of IA-HA is now recommended in the guidelines for treating knee OA published by the American College of Rheumatology (24) and the European Union of Leagues Against Rheumatic Disease (25). The most comprehensive systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating IA-HA for the treatment of knee OA was recently published in the Cochrane Library of evidence-based medicine (26). The Cochrane review identified 63 RCTs of IA-HA, of which 37 compared IA-HA to intra-articular...

Honey in Wound Healing

There is a long tradition of the use of honey in wound healing. Medical literature from ancient Egypt and Greece as well as the Ayurvedic traditions of India have described the use of honey alone or in combination with other substances as a wound healing agent (43). These traditional applications of honey have evolved into current evidence-based practices in which honey is used as a therapeutic agent to modulate wound healing in a multifactorial way. It promotes debridement, kills bacteria,...

Tissue Augmentation

The introduction of cross-linked, water-insoluble gels of hyaluronan for tissue augmentation, a procedure sometimes referred to as viscoaugmentation (56), has increased the use of dermal fillers in aesthetic medicine. Cross-linked hyaluronan is considered an important improvement over the previously available collagenbased fillers because it does not require skin testing prior to treatment, does not require overcorrection during the injection, and, moreover, because cross-linked hyaluronan can...

Effect of Intestinal Microbiota on the Immune System Clinical Trials

There is increasing evidence that the interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the intestinal epithelial and immune cells plays a key role in the postnatal development of the immune system. First studies with probiotics (74) and synbio-tics (40) demonstrate effects during infancy, and studies regarding the vaccination response in the elderly (75) indicate that the prebiotics might also influence the immune system. In particular, the animal experiments with prebiotics described above...