Index

Page references followed by t indicate material in tables. Acceptors, in carbohydrate synthesis, 17, 18 ACE1 gene, in yeast-based vaccine vector design, 142 Actin-polymerizing (ActA) protein, Listeria monocytogenes and, 116, 117 Activated T cells CD137 on, 256-257 PD-1 expression on, 249 Activation-induced cell death (AICD). See also Apoptosis anti-CD137 and, 255, 260 in cancer vaccine evaluation, 300 Active immunization, as cancer immunotherapy strategy, 230-231 Acute myeloblastic leukemia...

Enzyme Linked Immunospot Assay ELISpot

The interferon-y (INFy) ELISpot assay is a commonly used procedure and has been extensively validated for the detection and quantification of functional T cell responses in patients treated with cancer vaccines. ELISpot is an attractive and powerful assay that allows tracking of antigen-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of patients who receive vaccines provided enough T cells are available for pre- and postimmunization sampling. ELISpot also permits quantitative measurement of cytokine...

Modified Vaccinia Ankara

Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a replication-defective strain of vaccinia virus that was created by serially passaging vaccinia virus through chicken embryo fibroblast cells. The resulting virus is not able to replicate in mammalian cells, but has retained its ability to infect cells and synthesize viral proteins, thus remaining immunogenic 16 . These properties have made MVA an attractive vaccine vector for cancer therapy, as MVA has been shown to be safely administered to high-risk...

Preclinical Safety Studies And Clinical Trials In Cancer With Yeastbased Immunotherapy

Preclinical Safety Studies with Yeast-Based Immunotherapeutics Yeast-based vaccines expressing three different antigens have been tested in five separate toxicity studies in rabbits conducted under Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Rabbits were injected subcutaneously with 0.5-100 YU per injection site, and up to 13 weekly injections before histopathological analysis. Aside from occasional minor injection site reactions that resolved after 2 weeks' recovery, none of the rabbits showed signs of...

Contributors

Mathew Augustine, MD Departments of Immunology and Surgery, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD Brian G. Barnett, MD Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, LA Virginia Borges, MD Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO Michael J. Brumlik, PhD The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX Lieping Chen, MD, PhD Departments of Dermatology, Oncology, and Immunology, and The Institute...

References

Skamene E The Bcg gene story, Immunobiology 191 4-5 451-460 1994 . 2. Guerin C The history of BCG, in BCG Vaccine Tuberculosis-Cancer, Rosenthal SR, ed, PSG Publishing, Littleton MA, 1980, p 35. 3. Mastrangelo G, Fadda E, Milan G Cancer increased after a reduction of infections in the first half of this century in Italy Etiologic and preventive implications, Eur J Epidemiol 14 749-754 1998 . 4. Rosenthal SR BCG in cancer and leukemia, in BCG Vaccine Tuberculosis-Cancer, Rosenthal SR, ed, PSG...