II. Imbalance Between Mature DCs and Immature DCs
A. Mature Versus Immature DCs in the Tumor Microenvironment
III. Imbalance Between Stimulatory and Inhibitory B7 Family Molecules
A. B7-H1 in the Tumor Microenvironment
B. B7-H4 in the Tumor Environment
C. Cytokine Networks and B7 Family Members in the Tumor Microenvironment
IV. Imbalance Between Regulatory T Cells and Conventional T Cells
A. Imbalance Between Treg Cells and Conventional T Cells in the Bone Marrow
B. Imbalance Between Treg Cells and Conventional T Cells in Human Tumors
The tumor microenvironment is a battlefield between the tumor and host immune system. The myriad of cellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment determines immune response versus tolerance to tumor cells. Recent advances in molecular and cellular tumor immunology have demonstrated that the tumor actively recruits and alters immune cell phenotypes and functions, promoting either immune suppression or tolerance of tumor-associated antigens. In this chapter, we provide a framework for understanding how the immune response is altered in favor of forming a suppressive network in the tumor microenvironment, integrating different immune cell types and molecules.
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