Concluding Remarks

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects

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Owing to the abundant experimental and clinical evidence, there should no longer be any doubt for the existence of cancer immunoediting from immune surveillance to escape. Cancer cells are gradually able to gain several mechanisms of immune evasion during tumor progression even though they are pursued by the initial and continuing phases of immune surveillance. Immuno-logical sculpting contributes to immune selection pressure, which produces tumor cell variants that are resistant to immune effector cells due to their low immunogenic-ity. In advanced cancers, the marked shifting to immunosuppressive conditions due to the constitution of the immunosuppres-sive network in tumors makes it more difficult to provoke an immune activation to eliminate cancer cells. Given that adoptive immunotherapy using the peptide vaccine and DC transfer is not sufficient to reduce tumor volume and tumor elimination by direct priming for T cells in such conditions, indirect cross-priming for T cells, which can be induced by massive cell death in combination with anticancer drugs, will be required. Indeed, the modulation of anticancer drug-induced cell death as well as the activation of antitumor immune responses by using molecular targeting drugs, such as antibodies and small molecules, may provide remarkable enhancement of chemotherapeutic effects in cancer therapy. Further studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms to contribute to antitumor immune responses will be needed.


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