Cancer Immune Surveillance

In the early twentieth century, Ehrlich first proposed the existence of immune surveillance for eradicating nascent transformed cells before they are clinically detected (Ehrlich, 1909). Almost 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas postulated that the control of nascent transformed cells may represent the actions of an ancient immune system, which played a critical role in preventing malignant transformation (Burnet, 1957). The idea was supported by experimental results showing strong...

Concluding Remarks

Owing to the abundant experimental and clinical evidence, there should no longer be any doubt for the existence of cancer immunoediting from immune surveillance to escape. Cancer cells are gradually able to gain several mechanisms of immune evasion during tumor progression even though they are pursued by the initial and continuing phases of immune surveillance. Immuno-logical sculpting contributes to immune selection pressure, which produces tumor cell variants that are resistant to immune...

Info

Several families of cytokines induce tumor tolerance by immune suppression and or immune deviation. TGF-P inhibits the differentiation and effector function of cells involved in cellular immunity, including CTLs, Th1, and NK cells. In addition, TGF-P induces immune suppression by maintaining Tregs and triggers immune deviation by promoting Th17 differentiation. IL-10 inhibits the differentiation of Th1 cells and the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). IL-23 impedes the development of...