Effects of VEGF on T Cells

In the context of cancer immunotherapy, T cells have a well-appreciated role in the antitumor response, and cancer immunotherapies rely on the use of autologous, tumor-reactive T cells to mediate tumor regression (Rosenberg et al. 2008). In ovarian cancer, our lab has demonstrated that the presence of intratumoral T cells (also called intraepithelial T cells) was significantly associated with an increase in the five-year overall survival rate (Zhang et al. 2003a). Specifically, the five-year...

Immunobiology of Cancer Therapies Targeting CD137 and B7H1PD1 Cosignal Pathways

2 The Costimulatory CD137 Signaling 248 2.1 The Expression of CD137L and CD137 248 2.2 Role of CD137 Cosignaling in Effector Memory T Cells 249 3 Strategies to Augment Tumor Immunity by Stimulating CD137 250 3.1 Tumor Therapy with Agonist Anti-CD137 Antibody 250 3.2 Whole Cell Vaccines with Capacity to Stimulate CD137 252 3.3 Adoptive Transfer of T Cells with CD137 Costimulation 253 4 TheCoinhibitory B7-H1 PD-1 Signaling Pathway 254 4.1 Expression of B7-H1, B7-DC and PD-1 254 4.2 Complex...

In Situ Immune Contexture the Strongest Prognostic Factor for Recurrence and Overall Survival The Case of Colorectal

Histopathological analysis of colorectal cancers shows that these tumors are infiltrated by inflammatory and lymphocytic cells, in variable quantities (Dalerba et al. 2003). A closer look reveals that the latter is not distributed randomly, but seem to be organized in more or less dense infiltrations in the tumoral zone, referred to as center of the tumor (CT), in boarding edges at the invasive margin (IM) of tumoral nests (Fig. 1a), and in lymphoid islets adjacent to the tumor. This...

CTLA4 Monotherapy

In an initial trial of 17 patients with unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimu-mab, there were two partial responses PRs at the starting dose of 3 mg kg administered as a single dose. These responses were durable and treatment was well tolerated but for a mild rash Tchekmedyian et al. 2002 . A second pilot trial was conducted with patients that had been prior participants in tumor vaccine studies for metastatic disease. Nine patients who were previously treated with a GM-CSF secreting tumor...

Antigen Delivery and DC Targeting

Immature DCs are sentinel-like cells capable of processing and presenting antigens, and priming antigen-specifc, adaptive immune responses when they encounter antigen with danger signaling , and they traffic through all the tissues of the body, with relatively dense populations located in lymphoid tissues Banchereau and Steinman 1998, 2007 Schuler et al. 2003 Mellman and Steinman 2001 . Importantly, antigens may be processed by DCs either via an exogenous pathway e.g., soluble antigens in...

References

Andreae S, Piras F et al 2002 Maturation and activation of dendritic cells induced by lymphocyte activation gene-3 CD223 . J Immunol 168 3874-3880 Angevin E, Kremer F et al 1997 Analysis of T-cell immune response in renal cell carcinoma polarization to type 1-like differentiation pattern, clonal T-cell expansion and tumor-specific cytotoxicity. Int J Cancer 72 431-440 Annunziata F, Manetti R et al 1996 Expression and release of LAG-3-encoded protein by human CD4 T cells are associated with...