The Secret to Pain Free Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding Help And Baby Care For New Parents

The Breastfeeding Help Video Compilation By Australian International Board Certified Lactation Consultant Kate Hale is full of useful information about breastfeeding and how to manage low supply. It is very clear and concise in its content. It also has a lot handy tips for new mothers, including how to bath, massage and dress an infant. Learn how to care for a new-born, including how to deeply latch your baby and breastfeed without pain within minutes for a contented baby and an end to sore nipples. It is the only Dvd of which I am aware that is readily available to new mothers with an actual demonstration on how to correctly latch a baby on and off the breast using a couple of alternative feeding positions. Reading about breastfeeding in a book is nowhere near as useful as watching the Dvd. Continue reading...

Breastfeeding Help And Baby Care For New Parents Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Videos
Author: Kate Hale
Official Website: www.breastfeedinghelp.net
Price: $12.97

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My Breastfeeding Help And Baby Care For New Parents Review

Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Breastfeeding and Infancy

The breast is much more than a passive reservoir of milk. The mammary glands in the breast extract water, amino acids, fats, vitamins, minerals, and other substances from the maternal blood. They package these substrates, synthesize many new nutrients, and secrete a unique fluid specifically tailored to the needs of the infant. The glands balance milk production with infant demand, so that the volume of milk produced during lactation is determined by infant need. Milk production in the first 6 months averages about 750 ml day,1 but breastfeeding mothers have the potential to produce far more milk. Mothers who breastfeed twins can produce over 2000 ml day.

Nutritional Needs during Breastfeeding

Eating a healthy diet while breastfeeding is important. A healthy infant doubles its weight in the first 4 to 6 months after birth, and, for a mother who is exclusively breastfeeding, breastmilk must provide all the energy, pro tein, and micronutrients to support this rapid growth. Moreover, the diet also needs to support maternal health - allowing the breastfeeding mother to lose weight gained during pregnancy, replenishing nutrient stores depleted by the demands of pregnancy, and maintaining nutrient stores to support milk production. Breastfeeding women need significantly more energy, protein, and micronutrients during lactation to support milk formation. For women exclusively breastfeeding, synthesis and secretion of breast milk requires an additional 750 kcal day and an extra 15-20 g of high-quality protein.1 Requirements for most vitamins and minerals are 50-100 higher, compared with before pregnancy. Figure 4.6 compares the nutritional needs of lactating versus nonlactating...

Tiziana Lazzarotto Maria Paola Landini

The infants may acquire infection from the mother as a result of intrauterine infection (congenital infection), or through contact with infected genital secretions during passage through the birth canal (perinatal infection) or postpartum through breast feeding (postnatal infection).

Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency

Unrecognized thiamin deficiency can produce ill-defined symptoms, such as irritability, depression, fatigue, and insomnia, particularly in people with increased thiamin requirements (e.g., pregnant and breastfeeding women, women taking oral contraception, adolescents, diabetics, heavy alcohol users, the chronically ill).

Incidence And Sources Of Cytomegalovirus Infection

Breast milk is a principal route of transmission of CMV from mother to the child during infancy. Between 27 and 70 of seropositive women shed CMV in breast milk (38,39). It was reported that transmission of CMV to nursing infants of seropositive mothers was related to duration of breastfeeding and detection of CMV in milk by virus isolation (40). The proportion of infants acquiring CMV is directly related to maternal seroprevalence rates and the frequency of breastfeeding.

Pregnancy and Lactation

The effect of pregnancy and lactation on bone density was studied by Karlsson et al. (83). DXA measurements of the PA lumbar spine, total body, and proximal femur were performed using a Lunar DPX-L. Seventy-three women who were 5 or fewer days postpartum were compared to 55 age-matched controls. Lumbar spine BMD was 7.6 lower and total body BMD was 3.9 lower in the postpartum women than in the controls. Of the postpartum women, 65 were followed to determine the effects of lactation on BMD. Those women who did not breastfeed showed no changed in bone density. Femoral neck bone density decreased by an average of 2 in the first 5 months after delivery in those women who breastfed for 1 to 6 months with no additional bone loss being seen between months 5 and 12 postdelivery. Women who breastfed for more than 6 months had an 8.5 decline in BMD at Ward's area and a 4.1 decline in BMD at the lumbar spine at 5 months postpartum. No additional loss was seen at 12 months postpartum. Femoral...

Timing Of Hiv1 Transmission

Infants may be infected in utero through transplacental spread, during labor and delivery through contact with infected blood or secretions in the birth canal, and post-natally through breast-feeding. In countries where women are counseled not to breastfeed, most transmission occurs at the time of delivery. In countries where safe alternatives to breast-feeding are not available for infant nutrition, many infants are infected through breast-feeding. The timing of transmission is defined by the time that HIV-1 is detected in the infant using a standard diagnostic test (20,21). Cord blood should not be used for HIV-1 testing of the infant at birth because of the potential for contamination with maternal blood. If tests that detect the HIV-1 virus, such as an HIV-1 culture or HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, are positive within the first 48 hours of life and subsequent tests are also positive, the transmission is considered to have occurred in utero. However, if the HIV-1...

The Management Of The Infant

The infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother will need close follow-up throughout the first year of life. The infant should receive diagnostic testing for HIV-1 according to the schedule outlined in Table 2. ZDV will be administered for the first 6 weeks of life with clinical and laboratory monitoring for adverse effects (68,69). Prophylaxis using trimethaprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia will be started at 6 weeks of age and continue until two HIV-1 DNA PCR assays done after 1 month of life are negative, one of which is performed after 4 months of age (70,71). The infant should receive routine newborn care and immunizations. At 12 months of age, the first HIV-1 ELISA Western blot assay can be done to determine if maternal antibody has disappeared and if further testing is required.

Dietary Hazards Caffeine and Alcohol

About 1 of a maternal dose of caffeine (whether from coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, or medicines) is transported into the breastmilk. Infants metabolize caffeine more slowly than adults, and caffeine in breast milk may cause irritability and wakefulness. High intake of alcohol can inhibit milk production. Moreover, infant exposure to alcohol during breast-feeding may have serious adverse effects on development. Ethanol itself readily passes into the milk at concentrations approaching those in maternal blood and can produce lethargy and drowsiness in the breast-feeding infant. Heavy alcohol consumption (more than 4-5 drinks day) by nursing mothers may impair psychomotor development in their infants.10 The effects of occasional light drinking are unknown.

Epidemiology and Prevalence

The incidence of mother-to-baby transmission has been estimated at 15 in Europe and approx 45 in Africa. The transmission rates among African women are believed to be much higher owing to a combination of more women with end-stage disease with a higher viral load and concomitant placental infection, which renders it more permeable to the virus (24,25). The use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, together with the advice to avoid breastfeeding, has proven efficacious in reducing both vertical and horizontal transmission among HIV-positive women in the western world. For those in third-world countries, the reality is stark. Access to treatment is limited, and there is no realistic substitute for breast milk, which provides a valuable source of antibodies to other life-threatening infections. Patients receiving blood transfusions, organs, or blood products where screening is not routinely carried out must also be included.

Epidemiology of mothertochild transmission of HIV1

Without drug access rates of HIV-1 MTCT differ from 15to 25 in Europe and the United States of America (USA) to 25-40 in some African and Asian studies (World Health Organization UNAIDS, 1999). Contributing factors to these geographical differences in the rate of transmission include between others frequency of breastfeeding, and possibly concomitant infections in the pregnant women as well as differences in virulence of the virus according to subtype. While MTCT of HIV-1 has been virtually eliminated from industrialized countries, it still falls far short in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, MTCT of HIV-1 accounts for a few hundred infected newborns only in those countries where services for large cover of voluntary counseling and testing of pregnant women and supply of antiretroviral drugs throughout pregnancy with elective Cesarian section and avoidance of breastfeeding are established (Mayaux et al., 1997). Elective Cesarian section appears to remain an important intervention to...

A decade of clinical trials with antiretroviral drugs to prevent MTCT of HIV1

Although, results from the trials individually suggest that regimens using a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be more effective than single-drug regimens in reducing MTCT rates, the formal comparison of the efficacy of these antiretroviral regimens allowing for other MTCT determinants such as maternal plasma viral load, CD4+ T-cell count and infant feeding practices had not been possible. Recently Leroy and colleagues directly compared the 6-weeks peripartum efficacy of five different antiretroviral interventions in different African settings, taking into account heterogeneity between trials in population characteristics (maternal CD4+ cell count, Caesarean section, breastfeeding, gender and birth weight) in a pooled individual patient data analysis (Leroy et al., 2005). Their results demonstrate that a combination of ZDV and 3TC from 36 weeks of pregnancy had greater efficacy in preventing MTCT than the same combination starting during labor and delivery or than antiretroviral...

Transfer from Blood into Breast Milk

Xenobiotics, drugs, and other chemicals have the capability to pass from a mother's blood into breast milk. This could clearly be of great concern for a breast-feeding mother to prevent (accidental) exposure to a baby. There is no formal guideline to assess breast milk transfer, although it is accepted that the most straightforward method is to measure directly concentrations in the milk and blood. These may be extrapolated to others through the use of the milk-to-plasma (M P) ratio. There are clear difficulties in obtaining these values, not least the practical and ethical problems associated with sourcing nursing women to take part in trials. Thus there are few M P data, and it does present a greater emphasis on the modeling of this endpoint.

Prebiotic Factors in Human Milk

During vaginal delivery, the natural colonization of the infant starts with bacteria mainly from the vaginal and intestinal microbiota of the mother. For the further development of the intestinal microbiota of the infant, the diet plays an important role. During breastfeeding, the microbiota change within a short period to a flora dominated by bifidobacteria whereas the intestinal micro-biota of infants fed formulas without prebiotics is characterized by a flora of a more adult type (12).

Postnatal Evaluation Of The Infant

Infants born to mothers with TB and infants with TB generally are not considered contagious. There is no need for isolation of the baby except in rare cases of severe pulmonary involvement if the infant has positive AFB smears. Standard precautions should be taken when handling pulmonary or gastric secretions, especially in intubated infants. In cases of suspected maternal pulmonary TB, some experts recommend separating the infant from the mother until contagious disease in the mother can be excluded (13). Others allow limited contact of the mother and infant for breast-feeding and bonding but suggest no rooming-in to reduce exposure time and prophylaxis with isoniazid to protect the infant (13,20).

Congenital And Neonatal Infections

The most common pathogens of congenital and neonatal infections are viruses and the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Bacteria and the spirochete Treponema pallidum are less common. (See Chapter 6 on infectious diseases.) Fetuses are infected transplacentally, and neo-nates are infected during delivery through an infected birth canal or by breast feeding with infected milk. The maternal infection may be acutely acquired or more often results from reactivation of a clinically latent infection. Infections during the first trimester produce the most widespread injuries, notably inflammatory destructive lesions in the brain, sensory organs, and viscera, and malformations (Table 14.4). Among the major malformations are hydranencephaly, polymicro-gyria, hydrocephalus, and microcephaly. The neurologic sequelae of infections acquired later in gestation are mental retardation visual, auditory, and motor deficits and seizures. Maternal infections are diagnosed by sero-logic tests, and fetal...

Effect of Intestinal Microbiota on the Immune System Clinical Trials

The study was designed to investigate the possible influence of this prebiotic mixture on the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first 6 months of life in formula-fed infants at risk to develop allergy (paternal history of allergy). The study was performed as a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo (GOS lcFOS was replaced by maltodextrin in the placebo formula) controlled study. Two hundred fifty nine infants with a family history of atopy were enrolled in the study. Fifty three infants left the trial before completing the study. The main reason for dropping out was the continuation or reestablishment of breastfeeding. One hundred two infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. These observations are in line with the findings that breastfeeding results in reduced incidence of atopic and allergic diseases (4-6) and reduced incidence of infections (7-9). Although the different effects of breastfeeding are of...

Organochlorine Compounds Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer

Finally, it is worth noting that a careful analysis of all risk factors for breast cancer must be done before one can conclude that a cluster of breast cancer cases is related to some local environmental factor. For example, a study done in the San Francisco Bay area, involving both Caucasian and African-American women, found that the elevated breast cancer incidence in the Bay area could be completely accounted for by regional differences in known risk factors, e.g., parity, age at first pregnancy, months of breast feeding, and ages at menarche and menopause.180

Important Features of Herbs

Finally, herbs should be avoided in certain circumstances. People should avoid herbs if they have multiple medical problems or are taking multiple medications women who are pregnant or breast-feeding and children also should avoid herbs. Some medications have a very specific range in which they are effective and in which they do not have side effects. These include anticonvulsant medications, blood-thinning medications, and some heart medications. Herbs should not be taken with these medications because we do not know all of possible interactions that herbs could have with them. Some herbs could mildly alter the blood levels of these medications and thereby decrease their effectiveness or increase their side effects.

Cranberry and Other Herbal Therapies for Urinary Tract Infections

Cranberry generally is well tolerated. Cranberry may interact with blood-thinning medications, including warfarin (Coumadin). The chronic use of high doses may increase the risk of developing kidney stones and may cause stomach discomfort, loose stools, and nausea. The safety of cranberry use in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding is not known.

Epidemiology And Routes Of Transmission

Another potential route of HHV-8 transmission from infected mothers to their infants is via breast milk. A number of human herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus, EBV, and herpes simplex virus type 1 have been detected in breast milk or shown to be transmitted via breast-feeding. The presence of HHV-8 in breast milk might suggest that this agent may also be transmitted via breast-feeding. A study from Zambia, however, failed to readily detect any HHV-8 DNA in breast milk from HHV-8-seropositive Zambian mothers (both HIV-positive and -negative). In contrast, 21 of the samples

Risk Of Fetal And Neonatal Infection

Neonatal nonpoliovirus EV infections are common. In one study, 13 of infants younger than 1 month were infected by an EV during the summer and fall months 21 of infected newborns were symptomatic. Infection was associated with non-breastfeeding and lower socioeconomic status (35,80). EVs were responsible for 65 of hospital admissions of those younger than 3 months with suspected sepsis in the summer and fall in the same community (81). In another report, asymptomatic or symptomatic neonatal EV infections were detected by culture in 5 of infants and by serology in 7 during EV season (69). In a series of neonates evaluated for possible sepsis over a 13-month period, 4 were found to have EV infection by culture or antigen detection (82). Review of cases of neonatal meningitis at one institution found EVs to be the most frequently identified cause between days 8 and 29 of life, comprising at least one-third of cases (83). Overall, estimates suggest that the incidence of neonatal EV...

Ovarian Cancer

Ninety percent of ovarian cancers are of epithelial origin. The malignant cells probably have a clonal origin (6), and are thought to arise either directly from the surface epithelium of the ovary or from inclusion cysts (7). Ovulation appears to be a major risk factor for ovarian cancer, since pregnancy (8), the contraceptive pill (9), and breast feeding (10) are all associated with a decreased relative risk of developing the disease, although there is evidence that ovarian hyperstimulation may increase the risk (11). A great deal needs to be learned about the natural history of the various forms of this

William Buchan

Thanks to the influence of John Locke, children's health and medicine (paediatrics) had become a strong clinical speciality in Britain. William Cadogan's famous Essay upon Nursing, and the Management of Children, which urged natural breastfeeding and was against unnatural swaddling, was published in 1748, some fourteen years before Rousseau while William Buchan's

Conclusion

The impact of breast milk on infant and child health. Breastfeed Rev 2002 10 5-18. 2. Hamosh M. Breastfeeding unravelling the mysteries of mother's milk. Meds-cape Womens Health 1996 16 4-9. 3. Davis MK. Breastfeeding in chronic disease in childhood and adolescence. Padiatr Clin North Am 2001 48 125-141. 7. Howie PW, Forsyth JS, Ogston SA, Clark A, du Florey VC. Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. Br Med J 1990 300 11-18. 8. Hanson LA, Korotkova M. The role of breastfeeding in prevention of neonatal infection. Semin Neonatol 2002 7 275-281. 54. Rinne MM, Gueimonde M, Kalliom ki M, Hoppu U, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E. Similar bifidogenic effects of prebiotic-supplemented partially hydrolyzed infant formula and breastfeeding on infant gut microbiota. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005 43 59-65.

Peyers patch

Iga Igm Cells Peyers Patch

IgA produced in lymphoid tissues in the mammary gland is secreted into colostrum and mature breast milk through poly-Ig receptor-mediated transcytosis and mediates passive mucosal immunity in breast-fed children. The human lactating mammary gland contains a large number of IgA-secreting plasma cells, and the mammary gland epithelium can store large quantities of secretory IgA. The plasma cells in the breast originate from various mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. They home to the breast because most IgA plasmablasts express CCR10, no matter which lymphoid tissues they were generated in, and the breast tissues express CCL28, the chemokine that binds CCR10. Therefore, during breastfeeding, a child ingests a significant quantity of maternal IgA, which provides broad polymicrobial protection in the infant's gut. Moderate amounts of IgG and IgM are also secreted into breast milk and contribute to the passive immunity of breast-fed children. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that...

Etiologic agent

Transmission of HIV occurs by sexual intercourse (via semen or vaginal secretions), by breast-feeding, by parenteral routes (blood transfusion, intravenous drug use, or infusion of blood products by hemophiliacs) and by perinatal exposure (in utero or via the colostrum). Worldwide, nearly 4 million children under the age of 15 years of age have been infected with HIV, and in the year 2003 alone an estimated 700,000 children were newly infected, most via mother to child transmission (UNAIDS WHO. Epidemiological Update December 2003. Geneva UNAIDS WHO, 2003). The time from exposure to the virus until the development of a detectable antibody response is generally believed to be about 6-12 weeks. Following primary infection, individuals may either remain symptomatic or develop mononucleosis-type illness (Panteleo and Fauci, 1996). During this initial phase of infection, HIV-1 frequently produces a viremia resulting in the detection of antigenemia (Paul et al., 1987), concomitant with or...

Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Programme on HIV AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that in the year 2005 there were an additional 700,000 new infections in children, who have been infected through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). MTCT of HIV-1 accounts for a few hundred infected newborns only in those countries where services for large cover of voluntary counseling and testing of pregnant women and supply of antiretroviral drugs throughout pregnancy with elective Cesarian section and avoidance of breastfeeding are fully established. Intrapartum transmission contributes to approximately 20-25 of infected children, whereas in utero transmission to 5-10 and postnatal transmission to additional 10-15 of cases. The single-dose nevirapine (NVP) regimen has provided the momentum to start MTCT programs in many resource-limited countries however, regimens using a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be more effective in reducing MTCT rates and limiting resistant mutation...

Hepatitis C Virus

Studies of the potential of breast-feeding transmission have found a very low rate of infection to date (15-18). Discussions about the nonnutritional benefits of breast-feeding should take place before recommending for or against breast-feeding in an HCV-infected mother (11,19,20).

New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding

New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding

For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.

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