MBP is found in growing oligodendroglial cells and is specific to myelin. GFAP constitutes the major part of the cytoskeleton of astrocytes and is found only in astroglial cells of the central nervous system. There are few studies on the serum levels of these proteins in head-injured patients. GFAP is, however, of great interest since its brain specificity may be even better than that of NSE and S-100ft. Recently, Missler et al.  reported increased serum GFAP levels in 12 of 25 head-injured patients. After the first 6 hours, serum levels declined rapidly, including in those patients with SHI. Hence, GFAP may be a very specific marker of the primary TBI.
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