In the multicentre study referred to above, the Uppsala spring-loaded biopsy device (Biopty) was introduced to all participating centres. This device, when used together with ultrasound guidance, has previously been demonstrated to be safe and virtually free of complications . The authors are not aware of any fatal biopsy complication occurring with this equipment during the two multicentre studies or in the authors' experience in Helsinki (unpublished data). Since the introduction of modern transplant biopsy technology - fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with a 0.8 mm OD needle in the 1970s for kidney and liver and the Uppsala Needle Biopsy (Biopty) technology (NB) in the 1990s with a 1.2 mm out-ernal diameter (OD) needle for kidney and 1.2-1.6 mm OD needle for the liver -over 17165 kidney and 3950 liver FNABs, and 1675 kidney and 1437 liver NBs have been performed. This represents a total of 24227 needle biopsies with no patient or graft losses (H Isoniemi, personal communication).
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