Laminin fragments Fibronectin

Clara cell protein Prostaglandins Growth factors SDS—PAGE of proteins Stress proteins Metallothioneins

Characterize type of damage present

Figure 7.2 Tiered approach to using biomarkers for assessing nephrotoxicity. a-GST is a-glutathione s-transferase; ECM is extracellular matrix; SDS-PAGE is sodium dodecyl-sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

could be further assessed by measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase, which is found in the third segment of the tubule, specific tubular proteins including (a1-microglobulin [8] and isoenzymes of glutathione-S-transferase which is a marker for the S3-segment [9]. The final stage would be to incorporate some of the newer tests outlined in Table 7.2 and, of these, the markers for the extracellular matrix and the prostaglandins are particularly promising.

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