Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

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The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on BMD was studied in 45 men (47). BMD measurements of the total body, PA spine, and proximal femur were obtained with DXA (Lunar DPX). Twenty-one subjects had additional BMD measurements 15 months later. BMD results were compared to sex- and age-matched means supplied by the manufacturer. The average age of the subjects was 36 years and the mean CD4 count was 90. At baseline BMD in the lumbar spine was 3% lower than controls. This value had borderline statistical significance. BMD values in the other regions were not statistically different from controls. In the subjects followed over time, there was a decrease in total body BMD of 1.6% that was statistically significant. The other sites did not demonstrate significant change.

In a study of 50 eugonadal men with HIV and 35 healthy age-matched controls, Fairfield et al. (48) found statistically significantly lower PA spine and total hip BMD in the men with HIV. BMD was measured with DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). The average age of the men with HIV was 38.1 years. Baseline PA lumbar spine BMD in the men with HIV was 1.021 g/cm2 compared to 1.084 g/cm2 in the control group. At the total hip, the BMD was 0.951 g/cm2 in the men with HIV and 1.070 g/cm2 in the control group. There was no difference in the BMD between the two groups at the femoral neck. After adjusting for body mass index, the differences in total hip BMD remained significant between the two groups.

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