• Manufacturer: Norland, a CooperSurgical Company, Ft. Atkinson, WI

• Skeletal application(s):

Fig. 13-7. The Norland Excell™. A central pencil-beam dual energy X-ray absorptiometer. Photograph courtesy of Norland, a CooperSurgical Company, Ft. Atkinson, WI.

PA spine Proximal femur Forearm Lateral spine

PA spine less than 1.5 minutes Proximal femur less than 2 minutes Forearm less than 3 minutes Lateral spine less than 4 minutes

Percent young reference and percent age-matched comparisons T-score and z-score sBMD (mg/cm2) for L2-L4 and total hip NHANES III total hip comparisons

PA spine 1% Hip 1.2% Forearm 0.8% Lateral spine 2.4%

PA spine, proximal femur, forearm less than 1 mrem Lateral spine less than 2 mrem

• Dimensions: 72 x 48 x 49 in (182.8 x 122.0 x 124.5 cm)

• Recommended dedicated floor space: 7 x 7 ft (2.1 x 2.1 m)

• Operating environmental temperature: 60° to 104° F (15° to 40°C)

• Operating environmental relative humidity: up to 80%, noncondensing

• X-ray filtration: samarium

• X-ray beam geometry: pencil-beam

• Detectors: Two NaI scintillation detectors

• Scan path: rectilinear

• Quality control: Automated with 77-step calibration standard and quality control phantom

• Operation: IBM compatible computer with Windows operating system, DeskJet printer, 15-in SVGA monitor

• Accessories provided:

PA spine-positioning block

Hip sling with foot separator for use in proximal femur studies Lateral and forearm positioning aids 77-step calibration standard Quality control phantom

• Options: Software for research, small subject, or body composition; laptop computer; flat screen monitor; 17-in SVGA monitor

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