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An early Lunar DP3 dual-photon absorptiometer. This device utilized 153Gd to generate photon energy. Photo courtesy of GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI. Fig. 1-8. An early Lunar DP3 dual-photon absorptiometer. This device utilized 153Gd to generate photon energy. Photo courtesy of GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI. DPA studies of the spine required approximately 30 minutes to complete. Studies of the proximal femur took 30 to 45 minutes to perform. Total body bone density studies with...

Vertebral Morphometry and Fractures

The Relationship Between Prevalent Spine Fractures and Future Fracture Risk A number of studies have demonstrated that the presence of a spine fracture is predictive of future fractures, independent of bone density (33-39). The strongest association is between existing spine fractures and future spine fractures with estimates of the increase in risk from only one prevalent spine fracture of 3- to 11.1-fold. One of the first such studies was from Ross et al. (33). This study was performed in the...

Central xray densitometers Delphi

Manufacturer Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA PA lumbar spine Proximal femur Forearm IVA lateral spine imaging (T4-L4) Dual Hip Whole body (on Delphi with Whole Body) Scan time (in the 60 Hz scan mode) PA lumbar spine and proximal femur 15 seconds Forearm 30 seconds Whole body 6.8 minutes Single energy IVA 10 seconds (for 15-in scan length) Fig. 13-4. The Hologic Delphi . A central fan-array dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Photograph courtesy of Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA. Fig. 13-4. The Hologic...

Artifacts in PA or AP Spine Densitometry

The PA lumbar spine has been, and continues to be, used extensively in densitometry for diagnosis, fracture prediction, and monitoring. Unfortunately, it is also the skeletal site most often affected by structural changes and artifacts that may limit its utility. The BMD of a fractured vertebra will be increased because of the fracture itself. This increase in density could erroneously lead the physician to conclude that the bone strength is better and the risk for fracture, lower, than is the...

Omnisense 7000S Ultrasound Bone Sonometer

Manufacturer Sunlight Medical, Israel Skeletal application(s) Forearm (other regions pending FDA approval) Scan time Approximately 1 minute Precision 0.4 to 0.8 as the RMS CV, depending on the site Fig. 13-28. The Sunlight Omnisense 7000S. A peripheral quantitative ultrasound device used to measure the radius. Photograph courtesy of Sunlight Medical Ltd., Rehovot, Israel. Fig. 13-28. The Sunlight Omnisense 7000S. A peripheral quantitative ultrasound device used to measure the radius....

DTX200 Dexa Care

Manufacturer Osteometer MediTech, Inc., Hawthorne, CA Skeletal application(s) Forearm Fig. 13-17. The Osteometer DTX-200 DexaCare . The forearm is placed into the well in the top of the machine. Photograph courtesy of Osteometer MediTech, Hawthorne, CA. Fig. 13-17. The Osteometer DTX-200 DexaCare . The forearm is placed into the well in the top of the machine. Photograph courtesy of Osteometer MediTech, Hawthorne, CA. Percent young-adult and percent age-matched comparisons T-score and z-score...

Anorexia Nervosa

Eighteen women with anorexia nervosa underwent radial bone mass measurements at the 33 site with SPA (27). The results were compared to those from 28 healthy women. All of the women with anorexia had been amenorrheic for at least 1 year and had not been taking estrogens, progestins, or corticosteroids. The age of the women with anorexia ranged from 19 to 36 years with an average age of 25 years. The women with anorexia had significantly lower radial bone density than the controls (0.64 0.06 vs...

Alendronate Sodium

The effect of varying doses of alendronate sodium on lumbar spine and proximal femur bone density was evaluated in 994 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis by Liberman et al. (110). The women were followed for 3 years during which time they received either placebo, 5 mg alendronate daily, 10 mg alendronate daily for 3 years, or 20 mg alendronate daily for 1 year followed by 5 mg daily for the remaining 2 years. All of the women received 500 mg of calcium a day. Bone density measurements were...

Dexa Care G4

Manufacturer Osteometer MediTech, Inc., Hawthorne, CA Skeletal application(s) Forearm Scan time 2 minutes, distal forearm Percent young-adult and percent age-matched comparisons T-score and z-score Radiation dose 0.1 Sv per scan Dimensions 12.5 x 26 x 15.5 in (32 x 66 x 40 cm) Environmental operating temperature 58 to 86 F (15 to 30 C) X-ray source 55 kV, 300 A X-ray filtration K-edge filtration Fig. 13-16. The Osteometer DTX-200 DexaCare . A peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiom-eter used...

Peripheral Site TScore Equivalents for the Diagnosis of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

Attempts to determine site, device, and manufacturer-specific T-scores or T-score ranges at peripheral sites to identify women who are osteopenic or osteoporotic at the spine or proximal femur generally involve the calculation of sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AUC as discussed in Chapter 3. Fig. 9-1. The T-score regression on age for women by site and device, from the reference databases of the various manufacturers. The expected T-score for...