Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Permanently STOP Having A Bad Body Image. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To A Guide To Better Body Image.

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Body Image Questionnaire

Body Image Questionnaire has been developed by Ulrich Clement, & Bernd L we. Original instruments has been published in German. This instrument purpose is assess body image disturbances. The BIQ consists of 20 items assessing the dynamic body image and rejected body image. Abbreviated Name FKB20 (Fragebogen zum K rperbild) Author(s) Ulrich Clement, Bernd L we Purpose To assess body image disturbances Population Adult Age Range years Rejected body image Dynamic body image 1. Clement U, Lowe B. Validation of the FKB-20 as scale for the detection of body image distortions in psychosomatic patients Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 1996 Jul 46(7) 254-9. The study examines the validity of a body image questionnaire (FKB-20) assessing body image disturbances in a clinical sample (n 405 outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic) and two non-clinical samples (n 141 medical students and n 208 sports students). The criterion group was constituted by 98 patients of the clinical sample with...

Body image

Many survivors are at risk of obesity, low bone density, and have poor body image. A healthy lifestyle involving exercise may be a first step toward minimizing these late effects of cancer. Participation in sports activities among survivors seems to be similar to the general population. Survivors who participate in sports were more likely to report having access to health insurance and medical care by a local physician, although there were no differences based on age, race, socioeconomic status, body mass index, time since diagnosis, length of treatment, and time since completed treatment 30 . Males were found to exercise more than females, a difference typically also found in the general population.

Positive Body Image

Many adolescents report that the treatment is worse than the disease 1 , and the bodily changes that accompany chemotherapy and radiation make it more difficult to develop a positive body image 34 . While on treatment, satisfaction with body image was found to be related to gender, age, education level, and the frequency of changes in appearance caused by chemotherapy 35 . The effect on physical appearance is especially disruptive for females 36 . Pendley et al. 37 examined body image in adolescents who completed treatment and found that adolescents who had been off treatment longer reported more negative body image perceptions. Findings suggest that body image concerns do not develop until several years after treatment termination. Persistent negative perceptions may result in a loss of sex appeal and virility 34 . A distorted body image, whether based on reality or not, produces feelings of inferiority, low self-esteem, and incompetence. These findings suggest that more attention...

Choice of treatment Setting and Specialist

At least in the form of consultation. Children younger than age 18 years and their parents may benefit from the social and supportive culture of a pediatric hospital regardless of the diagnosis. Individuals between the ages of 16 and 24 years may have varying levels of maturity and independence, and the choice of physician and setting for their care should be determined individually. Pediatric oncologists may be less adept at a nonpaternalistic relationship with the patient (and potentially his or her spouse) and less inclined to consider issues such as sexuality, body image, fertility, and the like. Adult oncologists are more accustomed to dose delays and adjustments, and may be less willing to be aggressive with dosing that can be tolerated by the younger patient.

Of Adolescent Young Adult Oncology as an Entity

Shortly after the establishment of the unit, it became apparent that information regarding care of the adolescent oncology patients was scanty, if not nonexistent. In a series of investigations, the medical and psychological effects of the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in adolescents were probed. Since nowhere are these effects more exaggerated than with loss of a limb and its effect on body image, physical, psychological, and social functioning of the patient, a major effort was placed on study of this subject. These studies described various aspects of the bone tumors 25-27 and the short- and long-term effects of the amputation on the patients' lives 28, 29 . With some degree of surprise, the research found that, in general, despite all adversities, in the long-term most amputee patients had adjusted to their circumstances and were leading full and productive lives 28, 29 . Other investigations probed the role of social support systems in adolescent young adult patients 20, 30 ....

Ghrelin and Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterised by patient-induced and maintained weight loss that leads to progressive malnutrition and specific pathophysiological signs (disturbance of body image and fear of obesity). Based on the presence or not of bulimic symptoms, anorexia nervosa appears in two specific subtypes, restricting and binge-eating purging 70 . Complications in many organ systems can occur, including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, haematological, renal, skeletal, endocrine and metabolic systems. These alterations are not only related to the state of malnutrition, but also to the behaviour of these patients to control their weight. The endocrine disturbances include hypothalamic amenorrhoea, hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, low T3 syndrome and alterations in the activity of the GH IGF-1 axis 71-73 . Exaggerated GH secretion coupled with reduced IGF-1 levels are common findings in anorexia nervosa as well as in other catabolic...

Application 1 intra and intermodal differences in sensory quality

Related phenomena which also support the idea that the experience associated with a sensory modality is not wired into the neural hardware, but is rather a question of sensorimotor contingencies, comes from the experiment of Botvinick and Cohen (1998), where the feel of being touched can be transferred from one's own body to a rubber replica lying on the table in front of one (see Fig. 4 also related work on the body image in tool use Iriki et al., 1996 Farne and Ladavas, 2000

Successes Challenges and Opportunities

Ter an outpatient dialysis unit they are often reluctant to proceed with AV fistula or AV graft placement. Fear of needles, disfigurement, body image, increased length of time for post-dialysis hemostasis, illusions about the availability of transplant and depression, all present potential obstacles to fistula placement. In addition, the advent of ESRD and dialysis initiation frequently places patients and families under severe financial stress. Co-pay requirements may present a significant barrier to further procedures or hospitalization, especially in patients with commercial coverage. Payment restrictions can be a disincentive for providers. In some Medicaid programs, additional payment for access placement is unavailable during the initial admission for dialysis initiation 22 . Following fistula placement, approximately one third of patients will need a secondary procedure to allow proper maturation 15 . During this time patients are dialyzed with cuffed catheters with the...

What do Young People Say They Need

There is an informative, although not extensive, literature that reveals some insights into the concerns of young people with cancer and how their management might be improved. Major elements of the direct cancer experience that concern young people include the possibility of disease recurrence, changes in body image, personal relationships with friends, family or partners, reintegration into education, and job prospects 3-6 . Whilst some issues are cancer specific, others are shared by many young people who do not have cancer. Teenagers and young adults with cancer need to be seen firstly as young people and only then with cancer.

Symptom Assessment Close to the Patients Endof Life Multidimensional Issues

Practically, assessments of eating-related symptoms in patients with progressive, terminal illness should take into account multidimensional issues. Examples of such distressing symptoms include loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, early satiety (fullness), chronic nausea, taste alterations, and shortness of breath 12 . In addition, a wealth of other sensations and perceptions can contribute to distress perceived change of body image, social withdraw from meals, feelings of guilt, helplessness and powerlessness to fulfil caloric requirements, 'terror' of the scales (patients feel terrorised by frequent weighing), perceived starving to death, uncertainty about healthy food, and tensions in relationship with partner(s). Finally, the consequences of malnutrition may contribute to distress, such as wound sores, infections, and shortness of breath.

Body Structure and Function

Weight loss or weight gain can be problematic. The prevalence of obesity in the general population is increasing in many countries a disturbing trend associated with undesirable body image, poor self-esteem, and the risk of subsequent higher morbidity and mortality rates 9 . These issues concerning obesity are amplified in AYA receiving and following treatment for cancer. Mechanisms may include cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, inactivity, and improper diet 10 .

Palliative Nutritional Endpoints and Decision Making

In order to prioritise anorexia cachexia in the present (and often rapidly fluctuating) context, the patient should be assessed considering concurring physical (anorexia, fatigue, asthenia, body image, chronic nausea), psychological-emotional (anxiety, worthlessness, anhedonia), social (meal-ritual, express love through cooking) and spiritual-existential (bread of life) symptoms and distress. The subsequently developed comprehensive management approach involves team interactions and agreement with the patient and family about treatment goals and meaningful outcomes. The goals of the intervention may concentrate predominantly on changes in body image, focus on improvement of function, consist in the control of a specific symptom (sensation of anorexia, decreased food intake, chronic nausea), or aim to improve overall quality of life. These aspects of palliative care, the multidimensional assessment, caring and treatment of patients with advanced, progressive disease and weight loss,...

Mpact of Symptom control on Therapeutic Decisions

Palliative care addresses issues specifically related to morbidity, rather than mortality. Morbidity encompasses existential concerns (fear, anxiety, concerns about body image, sexual attractiveness, competence, depression, isolation, and abandonment), symptoms that are caused by the disease itself (pain, weight loss, dyspnea, gastrointestinal symptoms, lack of mobility), and therapy-related symptoms (hair loss, weight gain, nausea, vomiting, and mutilating surgical procedures, including amputation, evisceration, and venous access devices). Adequate attention to relief of symptoms can transform a devastating experience into one that is manageable, and which may even enhance personal growth and intimacy 8, 9 .

Treatment with Appetite Stimulants Megestrol Acetate

Von Roenn et al. found that treating patients with MA for AIDS-related anorexia cachexia not only increased weight, but also improved body image, sense of well-being, and pleasure from eating 45-47 . The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of MA for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, and or an unexplained significant weight loss in patients with a diagnosis of AIDS. A few studies have shown that treating cachexia in the elderly with MA improved quality of life and weight gain 48-51 . Lambert et al. found that MA appears to have an anti-anabolic effect on muscle size, even when combined with testosterone replacement. Resistance exercise attenuated this reduction in muscle mass 52 .

Pediatric versus Adult Care Specialists and Facilities

Determining which specialist facility is most appropriate will certainly vary from cancer to cancer and from case to case. Patients at any age who have a pediatric tumor, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma, will probably benefit from the expertise of a pediatric oncologist, at least in the form of consultation. Children younger than 18 years of age - and their parents - may benefit from the social and supportive culture of a pediatric hospital regardless of the diagnosis. Individuals between the ages of 16 and 24 years may have varying levels of maturity and independence, and the choice of physician and setting for their care should be determined individually. Pediatric oncologists may be less adept at a non-paternalistic relationship with the patient (and potentially his or her spouse) and less inclined to consider issues such as sexuality, body image, fertility, and the like. Adult oncologists are more accustomed to dose delays and adjustments, and may be less...

Eating Disorders

Although the name of this diagnostic class focuses on the fact that the disorders in this section are characterized by abnormal eating behavior (refusal to maintain adequate body weight in the case of anorexia nervosa and discrete episodes of uncontrolled eating of excessively large amounts of food in the case of bulimia nervosa), of near equal importance is the individual's pathological overemphasis on body image. A third category, which is being actively researched but has not been officially added to the DSM-IV-TR, is binge-eating disorder (included in the appendix of Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study). Like bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge-eating disorder have frequent episodes of binge-eating. However, unlike bulimia nervosa, these individuals do not do anything significant to counteract the effects of their binge-eating (i.e., they do not purge, use laxatives or diet pills, or excessively exercise). All three disorders are described in Chapter 38.

Psychosocial issues

Young women frequently have concerns about the impact of the diagnosis on their partner and may have practical issues related to the care of young children during their treatment. Research suggests that peer support and self-help groups decrease feelings of social isolation, depression, and anxiety 112, 113 . Young age of onset of disease has been identified as a risk factor predicting adverse psychological outcomes, and very young women are especially vulnerable to psychological distress related to body image and sexuality. Loss of fertility may also be the source of psychological distress in young patients, with between 10 and 50 of women experiencing sexual problems following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer 114, 115 . Adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine therapy may

Support Groups

Contrast, Roberts et al. 45 report the results of a support group intervention for young adults that led to improvements in psychological well-being. Topics covered included anxiety about health and physical well-being, worry about fertility and raising children, relationship problems, financial concerns, and body image. The authors noted that the group quickly developed a level of cohesion and suggested that the quickness and ease with which this happened was demonstrative of the need and desire for support among these participants. Thus, participation in teenage or young adult oncology camps, outdoor adventure programs, cancer survivor day picnics and family retreats offer opportunities for life experiences that promote successful achievement of age-appropriate developmental tasks. For instance, a dramatic wilderness adventure provides adolescents undergoing therapy with extraordinary experiences that boost self image and facilitate coping skills 84 . An 8-day adventure trip for 17...


In addition to anxiety about the future course of medical treatment, young adult survivors of childhood cancer report worry about body image, sexual identity, and fertility. Such issues are part of a normal developmental process in this age group, but become more potent in the context of a serious and chronic illness. Moreover, these concerns may be further escalated in the case of unsettled peer relationships, as absence from school during treatment often changes the young person's relationships with former friends and neighbors. For some, school absence results in educational disadvantage and delayed preparation for higher education or career progress. The same holds true for young adults in their work and social worlds, where employment becomes disrupted, where they may be subject to prejudice and discrimination, and where young adults feel uncertain or burdened about how much to disclose about their cancer to employers, coworkers and friends.


Phencyclidine, known as angel dust, is usually smoked, although it can be taken orally, intravenously, or by nasal inhalation. It is commonly used as an additive to other drugs, such as cannabis or LSD, and the symptoms and signs may vary greatly (49). At low doses, euphoria, relaxation, and an altered body image may occur, but at higher doses, there may be agitation, bizarre behavior, and a paranoid psychosis (50). Analgesia occurs, which may lead to self-injury. Physical effects include nystagmus (lateral and vertical), and with severe intoxication there is adrenergic stimulation with hypertension, tachycardia, flushing, hyperthermia, and cholinomimetic stimulation with sweating, hypersalivation, miosis, dystonia, ataxia, and myoclonus eventually resulting in coma, respiratory arrest, and circulatory collapse (51). Death may also result from intoxication or from violent behavior. Chronic effects of phen-cyclidine abuse include memory impairment, personality changes, and depression...